Chp 26: Anthropogenic Forcing Factor

Anthropogenic sources of black carbon are ______ times natural sources. List natural v. anthropogenic sources of black carbon.
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Has the 20th century rate of rise in temperature been faster than any rise in at least the last 22,00 years?FasterCurrent concentrations of (3 GHGs) _______, ________, & ________ are higher now than they've been in at least the last 800,000 years.CH4, CO2, N2OApproximately when did CO2 levels start rising from pre-industrial concentrations?Before 1850Has the CO2 rise been steady or is it accelerating>Accelerating91% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are from:burning fossil fuels, flaring, and cement production9% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are from:deforestationIn terms of where humanity's CO2 goes, there are three main parts of the climate system that it ends up about:~50% atmosphere ~25% vegetation drawdown ~25% rain drawdown into the oceanAnthropogenic carbon dioxide that is taken up by the "land" is mainly taken up by _________ and ______vegetation and soilWhat does "residence time" refer to, for an atmospheric gas?How long an aerosol remains in the atmosphereCompare the residence time of water vapor v CO2 v methaneWater vapor: less than 4 days CO2: 100 yrs CH4: 12 yrsExplain the "bathtub" analogy in terms of the sources and sinks of carbon, and how anthropogenic CO2 fits in.Sources: the faucet Sinks: the drain Anthropogenic CO2 is rushing out of the faucet at a rate higher than the drain can take outWhat type of change in emission would it take to stabilize CO2 levels (keeping the drain the same size)?drawdown = source source needs to decrease by half to equal the drain's outputWhat type of change would be required to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere over the next few decades?drawdown > source Create more sinks or greatly reduce emissionsWhich country has the highest carbon footprint per capita?USWhich has the highest carbon footprint for the country as a whole?ChinaFor the atmospheric warming, we've seen so far in the last century, which greenhouse gas caused the most (60%)? Did humans emit it? Explain. Give each step of the positive feedback loop.Humans inadvertently caused it Increasing CO2 --> global atmos warming --> increased evap b/c warm air holds more moisture and is more readily evaporated --> increased water vapor --> warms the atmosWhich caused the second most (~26%):CO2What are anthropogenic sources of N2O?List three human activities that are important sources of methane.landfills, cattle, and rice fieldsWhat is the advantage of HCFCs compared to CFCs? What are HCFCs still a big problem?HCFCs do not harm the ozone layer but they are horrible GHGs (1000x more potent than CO2)List three distinct types of anthropogenic forcing factors for climate change in addition to GHG emissions; briefly describe what each on e is and how it affects the carbon: decreases albedo contrails: increased high clouds (warming) deforesting: decreased drawdownWhat art contrails and how do they affect climate?they are artificial high clouds (warming clouds) that lead to warmingWhat CO2 concentrations have been proposed as thresholds for avoiding irreversible climate change?We do not know b/c the climate is changing faster than out understanding. Some say 2x time pre-indust levels (280) which is 560 ppm, others say 450 ppm, and others say we passed it and it was 350 ppm