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ASB101 Exam 1
Terms in this set (142)
What are the two goals of scientific anthropology?
Provide an accurate description of the range of variation, followed by the development and testing of explanatory hypothesis for the observed patterns.
What are the four subfields of anthropology and what do they consist of?
Biological: primate behavior/biology and hominid evolution
Cultural: cultural transmission, norms, values, rituals, ethnicity, behavioral traditions, and social structure
Archaeology: past societies based on artifacts and remains
Linguistics: language and its changes
What else besides human variation does scientific anthropology try to explain?
Lack of variation, universals
What are two reasons to study anthropology even if you intend to work in another field?
Understanding of variation will further your career, general understanding of human affairs and world history and ability to engage in informed discourse
What are the two fastest growing areas of anthropology that provide employment to many graduates?
Global health and sustainable development
What three types of variation are examined by anthropologists, know some examples of each.
Morphology: body size, skin color
Physiology: Asthma rates, TB rates
Beliefs/Behavior: divorce rates, resource distribution
Examples of human universals
Men being larger, divorce, drugs
What is a phenotype?
observable characteristics of an organism
What are the two systems of informational inheritance that interact with environments to produce behavior?
DNA and culture
Why is our understanding of behavior referred to as Dual Inheritance Theory?
Genetic information and cultural information can affect behavioral patterns
What is Evolutionary Cultural Ecology?
The theoretical approach to human variation
What is an example of how culture can influence genetic evolution?
The cultural growth of cooking altered selection pressures on digestive enzymes which led to changes in cooking patterns
What causes human variation?
transmission of different variants (genetic and cultural) along with different environments (natural and human influenced) interacting in juvenile development and adult expression
Why is natural selection relevant to behavioral and cultural patterns?
Many of our basic desires and motives are programmed into our brains because individuals with those desires left more descendants in past generations
What are some fundamental motivators of human behavior in all societies?
Food, sex, social status, avoidance of illness/death
Why does sweet taste good to humans?
Humans who ate sugary foods in the past left more descendants than those who did not seek out sweet foods
Why do humans have a "taste" for high status?
Those who did so in the past left more descendants than those who did not try to achieve high status
What were two big questions about biology that Darwin wanted to answer?
Why are there so many different types of plants and animals, and why did some look similar?
Why do plants and animals appear to be so well adapted to their environments?
What idea was Darwin's main scientific contribution?
How evolution can happen
What is the doctrine of fixity of species? Why did some scientists doubt it?
The idea that all species were created at the same time and had always existed. Some scientists challenged the fixity of species because many species looked alike.
What is the theory of catastrophism, what observation was it proposed to explain?
The earth had been repeatedly been destroyed (through great floods, etc.) and recreated by God. This theory was meant to explain fossils of extinct animals
What are the laws of uniformitarianism and superposition in geology?
Uniformitarianism: rock had been built up by slow accumulation of natural processes, not by catastrophic floods.
Superposition: the bottom layer in a succession of strata is the earliest and the succeeding layers were laid down over time, ending with the latest.
What did Lyell suggest to explain observed geographic features of the earth?
Lyell estimated that the world might be a couple million years old.
What was the shocking implication of Lyell's idea?
Slow changes over long periods of time lead to diversity. Extinct species were related to modern ones
What idea did Lamarck propose to explain "mutability of species"? What evidence showed that he was wrong?
Organisms were powered by a "will" to adapt and make physiological changes/adjustments during their lifetime to cope with the environment AND pass these improvements on to their offspring.
He was proven wrong by the observation that many acquired characteristics were not passed to offspring (strong muscles don't result in buff babies)
What did Darwin conclude when he saw marine fossils high in the Andes?
The mountains were lifted up in tiny intervals over tens, hundreds of thousands of years
What was a piece of evidence that Darwin used from observing farmers and animal breeders that helped him to develop the theory of natural selection?
Breeders used the knowledge of heritability to select animals that had desirable traits for breeding and production of the next generation's stock.
What did Thomas Malthus discover about biological organisms that helped Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection?
Populations of organisms had a tendency to increase exponentially, while available resources remained the same. Competition and starvation kept the population at a stable level.
Natural selection will always take place if what two conditions are met?
There must be heritable variation amongst individuals. The variation must be associated with survival and/or reproduction.
What change took place in peppered moths that illustrates how natural selection operated? What was the selection force that produced the change?
Dark moths camouflaged better in dark woods and vice versa. These moths were eaten less
What does the term "fitness" refer to in evolutionary biology?
An organism's relative propensity to leave successful offspring
What two things did Darwin not know about when he developed his theory?
How heredity worked and how variations could be heritable
What result of Mendel's showed blending was wrong?
Parents contribute only one of their two particles to offspring and that these contributed with equal probability through the gametes
What is the law of segregation?
Allele pairs separate during gamete formation and randomly unite at fertilization
What are dominant and recessive genes? What must be true to observe the recessive phenotype?
Dominant: particles are always expressed over the traits coded by other particles
Recessive: will not be expressed unless both copies of that gene are recessive
What ratio of phenotypes is produced when two heterzygotes for a particular trait mate and produce offspring?
What is the law of independent assortment?
Genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other
How many genes do humans have? What does a gene usually code for?
23,000 genes, protein products
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Phenotype: observed trait
Genotype: genes that determine trait
How DNA sequences code for the chemical characteristics of proteins that can change phenotypes?
The DNA sequence has a strong effect on the phenotype through the amino acid sequence of the proteins that it produces.
Phenotypic variation can be caused by what two factors?
Genes and/or environmental effects
What is the average mutation rate in humans?
1 new mutation to each 4 offspring produced
What are genetic drift and the founder effect?
Genetic drift: If all tall people in a short population die in an accident, the population will evolve temporarily to be short.
Founder effect: If a small group of people migrates to an area and then becomes a large population through time, the group will have higher frequencies of certain genes that were present in the original members and be genetically distinct.
Give an example of a human trait that varies across populations due to genetic drift.
Brown vs Blue eyes
What is a gene frequency cline?
When some gene flow between populations still occurs, the genetic boundaries between populations are "blurred"
What are Allen's and Bergman's rules and how do they explain body shape differences around the world?
Bergman's rule: Shorter limbs and rounder build decreases surface area to body volume, retaining internal heat. A long build maximizes surface area to volume, allowing for the dissipation of internal body heat in hot climate.
Allen's Rule: organisms in cold climates have short appendages (arms legs, fingers, toes, ears, etc)
What is the relationship between head shape and climate around the world?
Individuals in colder climates have rounder, and slightly larger heads, with wider faces and a high cephalic index (head width/head length)
What is the relationship between nose shape and climate around the world?
individuals who live in high humidity areas have wider flatter noses, and those who live in dry and cold areas have longer noses
What are the selective forces favoring dark and light skin color around the world?
The cost of light skin is mainly continuous somatic repair of skin tissue, and frequent infection from mild sunburn. But light skin allows for higher vitamin D production under low UVB conditions
What is the selective force that leads to the evolution of the ability to tan?
The ability to tan is an adaptive trait with a genetic basis because some areas of the world the amount of sunlight present varies considerably from one season to the next
Are some climate induced morphological variations not due to genetic differences but instead phenotypic plasticity?
Phenotypes change adaptively with circumstances. Many aspects of human variation are now known to be environmentally induced rather than due to genetic difference.
In what areas of the world do the largest and smallest peoples live?
Small populations experience stunted growth in childhood when nutrients are limiting in third world countries, as well as weather affecting body size.
What is true about populations that show lactose tolerance in adulthood? What populations show low frequencies of Lactase Persistance?
Lactose tolerance developed in populations that depended upon liquid milk in their diet, or in places where people were not getting sufficient vitamin D. A significant number of people from African, Asian or Native American ancestry cannot drink liquid milk.
What two things correspond in location with Lactase Persistence in Europe?
Evidence from the genetics of cattle shows high mitochondrial DNA diversity demonstrating a long time period of cattle domestication in this region.
Why is the sickling hemoglobin gene found at such high frequencies in some places despite the fact that the homozygote form of the gene is lethal?
A single copy of the sickle gene (an individual is heterozygous) confers protection against malaria
What is a reaction norm? How does this produce phenotypic variation that is patterned across populations without genetic differences?
The range of phenotypes produces by a gene across a range of environments. They result in phenotypic plasticity, phenotypes that change adaptively with circumstances.
What is the most likely explanation for height differences in populations around the world?
Reaction norms for growth rates as a function of dietary intake
Name three psychological/behavioral traits that show high heritability.
Political conservatism, homosexuality, divorce
What region of the US shows the highest percentage of "introverted" people?
What is the reaction norm for mating behavior of male soapberry bugs from northern-central states in the US?
"guard if females are rare, don't guard if females are common"
What is the evolved reaction norm that is a physiological short-term response to altitude?
Red blood cell density increases under high altitude
How can natural selection produce adaptive behavior without there being a specific gene for each behavior?
Natural selection has shaped the way organisms respond in various environmental situations
How can behavior be learned (not genetically determined) and yet still be adaptive?
Natural selection provides organisms with an innate ability to easily learn things that are important to survival and reproduction in their typical context of everyday life.
How do rats adapt their diet to changing environments?
Rats forage at night and generally sample new foods and then wait a few hours to see how they feel as a result
What are two things mentioned in lecture that humans are innately good at learning?
People are exceptionally good at learning to recognize those who cheat on social agreements. Humans have come to rely on social learning and cultural transmission
What is a learning tendency of small human children that is not found in other species?
Children are much better at learning new words or faces than they are at learning telephone numbers. Children seem to have an innate ability to learn grammar rules even if they are never taught those rules. Children also have a learning bias to imitate adult behaviors even when those behaviors provide no positive reinforcement
How do we know that humans are naturally adept at recognizing those who cheat on social contracts?
Contigent cooperation is typical of our species
Name the six categories of characteristics that the human brain has evolved that make it likely that much of our flexible and learned human behavior will still be adaptive?
Preferences, goals, learning biases, interests, perceptive abilities, priorities
What is "emergent culture"?
If individuals in the same circumstances assess the benefits and costs of behavioral patterns similarly, many individuals may elect to do the same things this can characterize groups of people
Name six things that organisms must do to survive and reproduce.
Survival to produce offspring, efficiency at energy gathering and processing, success at attracting the most mates, success at attracting the best mates, success at producing the most of offspring, success at producing the best offspring
Using cost benefit logic, how did Dr. Hill suggest that we might explain variations in the frequency of dancing between populations and age categories of individuals within populations?
Dancing may be more frequent or elaborate in cultures where individuals vary a great deal in physical condition and dancing reveals differences in health and condition.
What is group selection? What must be true for it to work?
Altruism by individuals could evolve to benefit the group if altruistic genes were favored
If a population has evolved a tendency to be altruistic for the good of the group why isn't that trait likely to stay common very long?
Selfish individuals that migrate into groups of altruists will always rapidly replace the altruists
What are the three conditions that will lead to the evolution of rate gain maximization in food acquisition?
More resources can lead to higher fitness, time in other activities can increase fitness, time spent acquiring resources entails greater risks than resting
Why don't we expect a brain to evolve that is indifferent to gaining maximum utility for minimum work?
Humans may have a universal evolved tendency to choose economic alternatives that give greatest gain with the least effort
What evidence suggests that Ache hunter-gatherers are very selective in their food choices when they walk through the Amazon forest?
They exploit only the resources that will maximize their mean net gain rate
What fraction of edible species in their environment make up 99% of the Ache diet?
Optimal Foraging Theory, like rational economics, suggests that people try to maximize what, when making economic decisions?
In the example of trying to maximize income by doing odd jobs going house to house in a neighborhood, what two characteristics of each job determined its "profitability" upon encounter?
Expected gain from specified option and average time to 'handle' (obtain gains from) specified option
What do 'opportunity costs' mean?
The cost of not doing an alternative activity because one has chosen to do something else
What two factors determine whether a lower ranked resource will be exploited when encountered?
Their profitability when encountered and the encounter rates of higher ranked items
What two factors have no influence on the decision about whether to exploit a low ranked resource?
Its own abundance (encounter rate) and whether it has some utility (G>0 or P>0)
Under what conditions would Indian people in the western US ignore cattails even if they were abundant in the environment and edible?
Taking a resource that is out of the optimal set will simply mean starving to death faster (because even lower mean gain rate will be obtained)
Given the insights from Optimal Foraging Theory, what factor might explain food taboos found in many tribes around the world?
They have learned that these resources are unprofitable, and wish to discourage future generations from wasting their time pursuing these resource types
When did food production rather than food extraction first become typical for our species?
About 10,000 years ago
Know the six types of economic systems in human societies.
Foraging (hunter-gatherer), Horticulture (shifting cultivation and man powered agriculture), Intensive agriculture (animal and machine technology), Pastoralism (nomadic care of social herbivores), Marine and aquatic, Market (specialization and trade)
What is capitalism, why does it lead to economic stratification?
Only some individuals have control over the means of production, and leverage their situation to economic advantage. The ownership of the means of production (land, technology, information) is often limited to a subset of individuals
Which organisms shows the highest level of cooperation?
What does marriage consist of in all societies around the world?
Cohabitation between a man and woman with both providing goods and services to the other and with fairly exclusive sexual relations and the intent to reproduce.
Under what two conditions is paternal investment more likely in animals?
Male support is critical to offspring survival/well-being; confidence in paternity is high
What is the difference between mammals and birds in percentage of species that show pair bonding? Why are birds higher?
8% vs 90 %. Baby birds are born helpless, and require a lot of parental care before they are able to fend for themselves
What characterizes baboon 'friends'?
They spend more time with them, interact more with their infants, defend females and their infants, and are more likely to father their offspring than are males who are not their friends
Which primates produce twins and show long-term pair bonding of males and females?
Marmosets. Males who fathered twins and helped raise them had higher fitness and pair bonding was favored by natural selection.
What about the food production of juveniles, adult males, and adult females in human hunter-gatherers indicates that paternal investment is important in human evolutionary history?
Our ancestors entered a feeding niche which allowed males to obtain high amounts of food, females less, and juveniles were incapable of feeding themselves
What is the biological definition of male?
Those who produce the smallest gametes (sperm) are defined as males.
What is the basic asymmetry between the sexes in obligatory parental investment that has implications for sex differences in behavior?
Each sex could obtain maximum fitness if the other sex did things that would not be in its fitness interest
What two features of mammalian reproduction further amplify the initial sex based asymmetry in offspring investment?
Gestation and lactation in mammals
Why is there stronger selection pressure on males than on females, to obtain numerous copulation partners?
The opportunity costs per child for women are huge compared to men
What are intra-sexual and inter-sexual selection?
Intra sexual selections allow males to defeat other males in physical competition over females. Inter sexual selections demonstrate the male's genetic qualities and superior health
Which sex shows higher variance in mating and reproductive success?
Is polygyny high or low when males do no paternal investment? Why?
high polygyny -- most females mate with only a few high quality males and many males never mate.
What is the reproductive tradeoff that applies to males but not females?
mating effort vs. parental effort.
What two factors have a large influence over levels of paternal investment around the world?
high fertility vs. high quality offspring
What fraction of ethnographically known societies showed some polygynous marriages?
Polygyny is institutionally allowed in about 83% of societies
What are two reasons that females might choose polygyny?
Polygynous women form cooperative relationships and help each other raise their offspring, or they may choose polygeny where there are large differences in male wealth.
What is the typical fitness consequence for women of coerced polygyny?
They resist being forced into polygynous marriages
What evidence from Ache hunter-gatherers suggest that paternal investment is critical to offspring well-being?
Ache child mortality by father death and divorce
What is the relationship between female earning power and divorce rates in modern America?
High female income relative to male income is associated with high divorce rates.
What is mate guarding and why is it practiced?
Exhibiting extreme jealousy, threats of violence, keeping women out of public life to increase paternity confidence
What is the number one cause of homicide around the world?
Mate guarding of women
What is 'coyness' and what is its function?
Reluctance to engage in sexual relations because all human societies males devalue female partners who seem too quick to engage in sexual relations or too willing to copulate with many different men.
What are proscribed and prescribed marriage?
Proscribed marriage - marriage that is forbidden between specified individuals.Prescribed marriage- marriage that is preferential between specified individuals
What is one piece of evidence that mating with close relatives results in lower fitness offspring?
Genetic homozygosity usually lowers fitness, and homozygosity at rare recessive alleles is often very harmful.
What is the "Westermarck effect"?
Children raised together have little sexual attraction for each other
How do the negative effects of inbreeding affect the evolution of female mate choice?
Females chose to mate with males who are genetically distinct from them
Who are the preferred marriage partners in most human societies?
What are two examples of cooperative altruism in animals in the wild?
baboon males sometimes take turns fighting off other males and copulating with a female that they guard together, capuchin monkeys will share food with each other if they are placed in a situation to obtain a food reward that is available to only one of them
Give one example of cooperative altruism by a primate in a laboratory experiment.
Tamarins selectively shared with unrelated adults who shared with them.
How frequent is altruistic helping in Ache hunter-gatherers?
Ache hunter-gatherers spend a large percentage of time helping others when they can gain no immediate direct benefit from their actions
Be able to list some of the types of altruism observed in Ache hunter-gatherers.
Cuts a trail for others to follow; makes a bridge for others to cross a river; carries another's child
What is the general condition required for costly altruism to evolve?
When those who pay the costs of cooperation also receive the benefits.
What are the five theoretical explanations for altruism?
Kin selection, reciprocal altruism, reputational enhancement, Cultural group selection, Genetic group selection
What is kin selection?
the idea that behaviors that help a genetic relative are favored by natural selection
What is the probability that an altruistic allele present in an individual will also be present in their children, grandchildren, siblings, aunts & uncles, nieces & nephews, first cousins?
These individuals have a coefficient of relatedness (r) of ½.
Under what condition can natural selection favor a gene that causes an actor to sacrifice his life to save the life of related individuals?
The genes that code for that helping behavior will increase in frequency as long as the cost of ego's altruistic behavior is less than half as a great as the benefit that ego's siblings gain.
What are the two mechanisms of kin recognition in humans?
Association and phenotype matching
What is reciprocal altruism?
When costs and return benefits from altruism take place simultaneously.
What four conditions must be met for reciprocal altruism to be stable?
Asynchrony of need, benefit of help received outweighs the costs of helping others, the chances of repeated future interaction are high, the mental capabilities to keep track of whether a reciprocity partner is defecting on the reciprocal arrangement
What is "indirect reciprocity"?
Natural selection can favor displays of cooperation designed to entice others to trust the signaler as a reciprocity partner.
How do "social norms" produce cooperation?
When a large number of individuals are willing to punish those who are uncooperative.
How does the cultural transmission of social norms increase the influence of genetic group selection?
If individuals are punished when they behave selfishly the genes that code for selfishness may have lower fitness in populations of punishers.
What effect does food sharing have on daily food intake and nutrition among Ache hunter-gatherers?
Men may produce no food at all for more than 3 months. These events are always caused by poor health (disease and accidents)
Which food types were shared most among the Ache and why?
Meat and honey are shared the most, resources with highest variance in day to day acquisition
What is the Ache evidence of dyadic reciprocity in food sharing?
Ache and most other foragers also show a tendency for nuclear families to share more with those who share with them.
What is the ultimatum game, how does it work?
If the second player rejects, neither player receives anything. If the second player accepts, the money is split according to the proposal.
What is the mean offer, and typical threshold of rejection in the ultimatum game?
Offers are typically near 50% in both tribal and modern societies, and rejection is very common for any offer below 20%
What is the difference between the typical income maximizing offer of the UG and the actual offer in traditional societies?
The equilibrium predicted strategies are for the second player to accept any non-zero amount (because earning anything is better than earning nothing) and for the first player to offer as little as possible, knowing that the second player will always accept.
What are typical offers and thresholds of rejection for the UG when played by chimpanzees?
Chimpanzees do meet the equilbrium predictions of this game
How does the public goods game work and what is the contribution that maximizes individual gain?
Each subject keeps the tokens they do not contribute plus an even split of the tokens in the pot. If everyone puts every token they start with into the pot then the group will extract the maximum total reward
How does the trust game work, what is the predicted and typical offer by player 1 in real experiments?
The reward that the dictator can (unilaterally) split between himself and a partner partially decided by an initial gift from that partner. The experiments rarely end in the subgame perfect Nash equilibrium of "no trust".
What is the effect of punishment on the contribution in the PGG? What evidence is there that people have a "taste" for punishing non-cooperators
It cannot increase the payoff to the punisher. this leads to greater group cooperation, and fewer defections in subsequent rounds.
What are the four general findings of experiments designed to test for cooperation?
People cooperate more than predicted and more than other animals, people show a preference for outcomes in which all parties gain something, people punish those who don't cooperate, even if punshment is costly, specific reactions to play have a genetic component (identical twins play similar ways), are based on measureable brain physiology
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