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the scientific method

1. make observations
2. test hypotheses (Identify controls)
3. develop theories (analyze)
4. scientific laws (abstract)

numeric problem solving steps

1. analyze (know and find list)
2. calculate
3. evaluate (check answer)

organic chemistry

the study of all chemicals containing carbon

inorganic chemistry

the study of all chemicals not containing carbon


the study of processes that take place within living organisms

analytical chemistry

study of the composition of matter

physical chemistry

study of energy transfer when a chemical undergoes change

pure chemistry

pursuit of chemical knowledge for its own sake with no immediate practical use

applied chemistry

research directed toward a practical goal or application

kinetic theory

particles in matter are in constant motion

What do changes in free energy enable?

They allow one to predict whether a reaction will actually occur under a given condition.

carbon chemistry

new carbon compounds are created every day (making synthetic materials)


prediction of the experiment

independent variable

stays the same

dependent variable

things that effect the results of the experiments

co-dependent variables

other dependent variables that effect the experiement

number of experiments

1 is enough for chemistry


to what extent is your data overgeneralized or limited?

control experiments

every detail and possibility of effecting change in chemicals is addressed

experimental controls

trying to figure out what to test by eliminating other parts of the procedures that effect the experiment

blind experiment

the person being experimented on doesn't know what the effect is - influences on experiment with placebo effect

double blind experiment

neither the person being experimented on nor the person conducting the experiment know the effect of the experiment

example of a double blind experiment

MSG reactions

raw data is

collected from the experiment

processed data is

how you process the raw data - interpretations (BIAS)

what are the possibilities of conclusions of an experiment?

1. data supports hypothesis
-is it supported well enough statistically?
2. data doesn't support hypothesis
-what needs to be changed? the hypothesis? do more experiments? modify the experiement?
3. data does not support or disprove hypothesis

upon completing an experiment, what should you ask yourself?

How do you need to modify your experiment?

procedural errors

how are you doing the experiment? what are the material controls?

equipment errors

incorrect measuring? error in technology?

human factor

incorrect procedure following?


how close to the theoretical answer something is.
-how close of units measured
-do you know what the theoretical amount is supposed to be?


how consistent measurements are.

With accuracy and precision, which is the affector of which?

precision effects accuracy

Why is there greater error with a measuring tool with a wider tube?

A wider tube enables a greater curve of the meniscus therefore skewing your measurements.

Sigdigs are the

reflection of the accuracy of your numbers/measurements

With metric unit conversions, convert

the smaller unit to the larger unit

With metric unit conversions, add the numerical change to

the base unit - keep the unit with the prefix without a coefficient


a quantity that has both a number and a unit

how do you multiply 2 numbers in scinot?

multiply the coefficients and add the exponents

how do you divide 2 numbers in scinot?

divide the coefficients and subtract the divisor exponent from the dividend exponent

how do you add/subtract 2 numbers in scinot?

convert to the same exponent, then add or subtract the coefficients

accepted value

the correct value for the measurement based on reliable references (the accurate value)

experimental value

the value measured in the lab (the precise value)

how do you determine error?

experimental value - accepted value = error

how do you calculate the percentage of error?

error / accepted value * 100% = percent error

instruments that differ in the number of sigfigs that can be obbtained from their use differ

in the precision of measurements

a calculated answer expressed in sigfigs

cannot be more precise than the least precise measurement from which it was calculated

How are the following quantities expressed metrically (these are the 7 vase units)?:
1. length
2. mass
3. temperature
4. time
5. amount of substance
6. luminous intensity
7. electric current

1. meter (m)
2. kilogram (kg)
3. Kelvin (K)
4. second (s)
5. moles (mol)
6. candela (cd)
7. amphere (A)

energy and how it is measured

the capacity to do work or produce heat measured in Joules (J) or calories (cal)

temperature measurements

*absolute zero

an object's temperature determines

the direction of heat transfer
(heat moves from the hotter object to the colder object)

temperature is determined by

energy and the motion of particles


the ratio of the mass of an object to its volume

density vs. temperature

density and temperature are inverse qualities (mass however always stays the same)

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