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Chapter 1 Test 1
Terms in this set (25)
The process or faculties by which knowledge is acquired and manipulated.
Predictable changes that occur in structure or function over the life span.
In developmental psychology, a substrate of the organism that develops, such as muscle, nervous tissue, or mental knowledge; contrast with function.
In developmental psychology, action related to a structure, such as movement of a muscle, firing of a nerve, or activation of a mental representation; contrast with structure.
Bidirectionally of Structure and Function
The reciprocal interaction of structure and function to produce a pattern of development.
The form development takes over time.
Differences in patterns of intellectual aptitudes among people of a given age.
Philosophical perspective that human intellectual abilities are natural.
Philosophical perspective that nature provides only species-general learning mechanisms, with cognition arising as a result of experience.
The idea that one's genes determine one's behavior.
Representational Constraints or Innateness
Representations that are hard-wired into the brain so that some types of knowledge are innate.
Architectural Constraints or Innateness
Ways in which the architecture of the brain is organized at birth; the type and manner in which information can be processed by the brain.
Chronotopic Constraints or Innateness
Neural limitations on the developmental timing of events.
Developmental Contextual Model
Model that proposes that all parts of the organism (such as genes, cells, tissues, and organs), as well as the whole organism itself, interact dynamically with the contexts within which the organism is embedded.
A set of elements that undergoes change over time as a result of interactions among the elements. Dynamic systems theories propose that developmental differences emerge as a result of the self-organization of lower level elements.
In dynamic systems theories, the process whereby patterns emerge from interactions of the components of a complex system without explicit instructions either in the organism itself or from the environment.
A perspective of cognitive development that emphasizes that development is guided by adults interacting with children, with the cultural context determining to a large extent how, where, and when these interactions take place.
In developmental psychology, the degree to which a person maintains over time the same rank order in comparison with peers for a particular characteristic.
Plasticity(of cognition and behavior)
The extent to which behavior or brain functioning can be emerged.
The mental encoding of information.
Goal-directed and deliberately implemented mental operations used to facilitate task performance.
The process involved in regulating attention and in determining what to do with information just gathered or retrieved from long-term memory.
General, underlying cognitive abilities that influence performance over a wide range of situations(or domains).
Cognitive abilities specific to one cognitive domain under control of a specific mind/brain function.
Concept that certain areas of the brain are dedicated to performing specific cognitive tasks.
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