Terms in this set (78)
-The study of the human brain to evaluate the development of emotions and affect
-began late 1990s/early 2000s
-tightly linked with cognitive neuroscience
Unit of analysis in affective neuroscience
Traits/behaviors: self report, interview
Cognitive measures: attention, memory, executive functions
Peripheral psychophysiology: heart rate, skin conductance
Brain activation: brain waves, structural activation
Molecular level: neurotransmitters, genetics
1. affective, subjective states of awareness
2. collection of responses triggered by the brain to the body
surprise, enjoyment, sadness, disgust, anger, fear
Paul ekman's definition of emotion
Separate mental states that differ from one another in important ways. also they are used to indicate that evolution played an important role in shaping both the unique and the common features. Also noncom emotions are made of blends of basic emotions
Approach versus avoidance-related emotions
Right hemisphere: approach system that facilitates appetitive behavior and generates some approach-related positive emotions like pride/enjoyment. Moving toward goal
Left hemisphere: Withdrawal and generates some withdrawal related negative emotions like fear or disgust
-Allows distinction of valence-based dissociation from an action tendencies based dissociation.
1. Central nervous system
b. Spinal cord
2. Peripheral nervous system
a. autonomic nervous system
i. sympathetic nervous system
ii. parasympathetic nervous system
b. somatic nervous system
Brain areas important in the elicitation of emotions. Includes amygdala, hypothalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, and hippocampus
Components of emotions
Appraisal: labeling (anxiety is scary)
Expression: what's showing on your face (fearful facial expression)
Autonomic reaction: heart rate, respiration (heart rate increases)
Action tendency: response (avoidance)
Feeling: (butterflies, discomfort)
Primary site of affect
Face: brain stores affective info and triggers facial expressions
-Emotion serves as a readiness to act in a certain way
-Left prefrontal cortex (approach), and right prefrontal cortex focuses on avoidance
-Approach: happiness when goals met, sadness goals unmet
-Avoidance: calmness when danger avoided, anxiety when danger possible/probable.
Emotion as bodily reaction
Trying to decide whether bodily changes cause emotions or emotions cause bodily changes.
-no generator-peripheral nervous system responds similarly for different emotions.
-We now focus on brain circuits
Sympathetic nervous system
fight or flight system, related to increased respiration and breathing rate, blood and glucose to large muscles
rest and relaxation, focus on digestion, and immune system
Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis
neuroendocrine system, involved in the stress response, immune system
-signals sent via hormones. slower than neurotransmission
made of dendrites which receive inputs from other neurons and axons which send information to neurons
control center, controls DNA, regulates gene expression
pre and post-synaptic neuron and astrocyte
excitatory, depolarize the neuron (increase)
inhibitor, hyperpolarize the neuron (decrease)
What is voltage for action potential?
No activity voltage
Gated ion channels
only open when NTs bind to receptors or voltages change
Nongated ion channels
allow ions to pass the cell membrane passively
When neuron reaches firing threshold, voltage gated sodium channels open, and sodium enters the cell (quickly)
when potassium gates open, allow potassium (slowly) to leave the cell
Nodes of ranvier
When action potential travels down axon, voltage gated NA/K channels open at this location allowing the spike to propogate the axon
Myelination helps to
increase the speed of neurotransmission
on the soma or dendrite of the presynaptic neuron, signal to release less of the NT
on the soma, signal to release less of another neurotransmitter
NT binds with receptor, opens specific ion channel.
-Cations: sodium, lead to EPSP
-Anion: chloride, lead to IPSP
NT binds with receptor, work on G proteins within cell
Four main types NT
Amino acids (GABA and glutamate), acetylcholine, monoamines (catecholamines and serotonin), histamine
Most abundant excitatory NT in CNS.
-Has ionotropic and metabotropic receptors.
most prevalent inhibitory NT in CNS.
-Two main receptors: GABA A (ionotropic) and GABA B (metabotropic)
receptors implicated in learning and memory
Prevalent in PNS and CNS.
PNS: NT used for motor neurons and muscle cell communication
CNS: excitatory and inhibitory effects
Two main types receptors: ionotropic (nicotinic) and metabotropic (muscarinic)
catecholamines and serotonin
Catecholamines: dopamine and it's metabolic products epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Important in basal ganglia.
-Metabotropic receptors (G protein coupled receptors)
fight or flight (increased oxygen and glucose to brain and muscles, suppressant of other processes)
-Metabotropic receptors (alpha and beta**)
mood and cognition
-16 different receptors in 6 groups (4 g-protein coupled, 1 ionotropic)
-Autoreceptors and heteroreceptors
-Locus coeruleus- adrenal glands of the brain
-Metabotropic receptors (alpha** and beta)
-Prevalent in CNS
Corticotropin-releasing factor and oxytocin
5-HT2 receptors are excitatory and excite these, which help to regulate social behavior
Neurotransmission ends in three ways
Reuptake, enzymatic inactivation, diffusion
transporter protein from the presynaptic neuron reabsorbs the NT. monoamines work this way
chemical released into synapse by presynaptic neuron that breaks down NT, acetylcholine and monoamines work this way
NTs diffuse away from synapse. Neuropeptides work this way.
-serve many roles, including forming myelin, forming blood-brain barrier, regulating neurotransmission, devouring dead cells
What is the white and gray matter in your brain?
Gray matter: neurons
White matter: glia
Via connexons or gap junctions
-Fast, but less plastic
-Glial cells and astrocytes use this
Four main types of glia
Astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, microglia (CNS), schwann cell (PNS)
Neuron support, synapse regulation, blood-brain barrier, repute, chemical signals
myelination, essential for fast neurotransmission.
phagocytes, devour and remove damaged cells. Immune system for brain
myelination in PNS
groups of neurons that process certain kinds of info
take info toward brain
take signals away from brain to other neurons, glands, muscles
connect to other neurons and convey signals, are neither sensory nor motor, largely inhibitory
Describe the process of neurotransmission
-Begins when presynaptic neuron releases an action potential (-55v) which results in the NT being released into the synapse (because of calcium ions). NT travels across the synapse and binds with receptors at the postsynaptic membrane.
-Action potential causes sodium to enter the neuron and potassium to leave the neuron
relay center for sensory inputs (except olfaction)
link between endocrine system (hormones) and nervous system
part of limbic system. important in emotion, fear, positive and negative stimuli
important for procedural memory (riding a bike) and learning
-Striatum (caudate and putamen), substantia nigra
Frontal lobe (executive functions/attention), temporal lobe (memory/audition), occipital lobe (vision), parietal lobe (vision)
awareness of physiology. Fold
evaluate injured brain to determine effects on cognition; includes tumors, degenerative diseases like Parkinson's (death of dopaminergic neurons), TBI; single dissociation vs. double dissociation
Brain imaging methods
MRI (measure BOLD via protons), PET, (radiotracer), EEG/ERP (summation of electrical activity), CT (3-D x-ray), DTI (measures white matter tracts)
Whether patients display dysfunction on one or two tasks (example: parkinson's and auditory attention)
Whether two patient groups display dysfunction on separate tasks (example: parkinson's and alzheimer's on auditory attention and episodic memory)
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Assesses energy of hydrogen protons after magnetization.
T1 good for structural assessment
T2 used for functional ....
PET (positron emission tomography)
Radioactive substance is ingested, its progress in blood is measured by this machine. When the tracer decays, creates gamma rays which are measurable. Scan shows blood flow. More radiation=more blood flow.
Measures summation of postsynaptic potentials (binding of NTs to receptors). Used to assess sleep disorders, epilepsy, other brain function difficulties. Can also assess basic cognitive functioning by examining frequency bands
ERP (event related potentials)
Broken down into sensory, cognitive, and motor components. Have excellent temporal resolution. Measure neural activity in response to stimuli in real time
CT Scan (computed tomography)
Take several 2-d x-rays of the brain and generate a 3-d image. Can distinguish ventricles and large brain areas. cannot distinguish between white and gray matter. Used for clinical diagnosis of neurological damage in patients
DTI (diffusion tensor imaging)
Specific form of MRI used to identify white matter tracts. Works by measuring density and motion of water in axons. Water more restricted in axon than rest of the brain, so can differentiate the axon bundles. Looks like a rainbow.
What is typically the dependent variable in cognitive measures?
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