Terms in this set (38)
Who was Aztecs?
People who lived in the Valley of Mexico
What is the capital city of Aztecs?
Who was Mayas ?
People who established a great civilization in Middle America.
What is slash and burn agriculture ?
A farming technique in which trees are cut down and burned to clear and fertilize the land
What is maize?
What is hier-o-glyphics?
The signs and symbols that made up the Mayan writing system.
Who form America's first advanced civilization?
Where was the Olmec center?
Around the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico (today's Vera-cruz and Taba-sco)
Where was Olmec's largest urban area?
San Lorenzo, many Olmec stone heads were found
What formed Olmec's town and villages?
Religious and government centers, temples and plazas were in large towns, most Olmec lived in villages.
How do we know Olmec was the first complex civilization in America?
From their buildings, sculptures, writing, astronomy and religion
What were the Olmec known for in building?
Their style temples, which became popular with Aztecs and Mayans
What were the Olmec known for in sculptures?
Their huge stone head sculptures, it represented Olmec rulers
What were the Olmec known for in writing system?
Created the first pictorial writing system in Americas using symbols.
What were the Olmec known for in astronomy?
Create calendar and recorded religious dates and event.
What was the Olmec's religion?
Polytheistic, used jaguar as god's symbol and influenced Mayan and Aztec belief
What did Olmec trade?
Through large trade network. Traded valuable goods such as stones and jade.
How did we know now they traded with far away people?
They had big stone for buildings and sculptures, jade religious artifacts. Both types of stones were not from Olmec area.
How did the Aztecs choose the location of Tenoch-titlan?
The Aztecs asked their god of war. God replied "an eagle perched on a cactus". They found a swampy island in the center of Lake Texcoco match the description. They build Tenoch-titlan.
Who were the Olmec and what they known for?
1200 BCE to 600 BCE , they lived around the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico (today's Vera-cruz and Taba-sco), known for their pyramid shaped temples, stone carved heads and their culture influenced Aztecs and Mayans.
What farming techniques was used by Mayans?
Slash and burn farming to produce fertile lands.
What is the disadvantage of Slash and burn farming?
Land wore out quickly, they have to move to new place.
What was the most important crop of the Mayans?
Maize (or corn)
How do we know farming was a major part of Mayan's life?
Agriculture was so important that they worship corn god, sun god, rain god to make crops grow.
Explain Mayan number system?
Dots were single number
Bar is 5
One large dot is 20.
The system was based on 20, we based on 10.
How was Mayan region governed?
Divided into city states, each had their own rulers
Each city served as a government and religious center
Possible reasons Mayans abandoned their cities?
Because of drought, crop failure, war, disease, overuse of natural resources, or rebellion.
Where was Aztec Empire located?
Aztec located in a Valley in Mexico, they grew to include the land from the Gulf of Mexico to the Pacific Ocean.
How did the Aztec emperor benefit from his conquests?
They collected taxes in the form of food, gold or slaves
What were the challenges that faced the Aztecs in Tehochtitlan?
Getting fresh water and getting enough farmland
How did the Aztecs solve their water issue in Tehochtitlan?
Building aqueducts to carry water from mainland to storage centers in Tehochtitlan .
How did the Aztecs solve their farmland issue in Tehochtitlan?
They build chinampas (raised fields) using rich soil from the bottom of the lake. They planted trees to make sure the soil did not get wash away and used canals to transport goods to marketplace
Aztecs social class system
2. royal family, nobles, priests and military leaders.
5. Farmers (the largest class)
How did Aztec empire expand?
By conquering other people
How did Aztec treat people they conquer?
Conquered people had to pay tribute, some were used as human sacrifices.
Why some conquered people wanted to overthrow Aztecs empire?
They resented to pay heavy taxes and the treatment from Aztecs.
What was the role of women in Aztecs?
They were not allowed to be soldiers or leaders.
But they can be priestesses. Most were skilled at weaving. Girls did grinding flour, making tortillas and cooking
What cause the downfall of Aztecs?
In 1519, Spanish conquerors invaded Aztec Empire. Groups who already conquered by Aztec joined the Spanish. In 1521, Aztecs surrendered. Disease spread from Spanish had killed many people.