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Society of Cincinnati

formed by revolutionary officers in 1783, congress could not pay their pensions, potential rebellion that George Wahsington stopped

Alexander Hamilton

Critic of articles and called for a national convention

James Madison

Virginian allied with Hamilton to overhaul articles, contributed greatly to constitution

The Annapolis Convention The Virginia Plan

Hamilton and Madison set up convention to discuss articles, only 5 states came but the delegates approved another conference in philedephia in a year

The New Jersey Plan

1 house legislature based on states (not size), and gave congress power to tax and regulate congress

"The Great Compromise" Three-Fifths Compromise Checks and balances Separation of powers

all compromises that addressed small states vs large states, northern vs southern states, and states vs central power

The Federal structure

fed gov derives power from people and states, only way to avoid tyranny is to keep gov close to people according to montasquieu

Washington's Farewell Address


Quasi War with France


XYZ Affair


Alien and Sedition Acts Virginia and Kentucky

Federalist controversial acts that made it more difficult to become a citizen and allowed gov to persecute those who engaged in sedition against the president (often used to suppress uprisings and prevent republican freedom of the press) Virginia and Kentucky declared these statues void

Resolutions Federalists/Anti-Federalists

federalists included Washington and Franklin and wanted stronger central government, anti federalists believed that the constitution defeated the revolutionary ideals

The Federalist Papers

series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison and Jay to convince the nation that constitution was a good idea

The ratification process

changed the rules so that it only had to be 9/13 States it had been ratified by 9 states but waited for VA and NY (the 2 biggest states)- many ratified only on the promise of a bill of rights

The Judiciary Act of 1789


"Funding the debt" Assumption of state debts

new gov (Hamilton) took responsibility for the public debt (bonds issued during revolution and those of the states)

The Bank of the United States Hamilton's bank bill

wanted to create national bank to make up for American unorganized banking system (lots of debate about this)

"The first party system"

Republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for an agrarian republic) vs. Federalists (result of Hamilton's wishes for aristocracy)

Whiskey Rebellion

Tax on distilleries made small backcountry Pennsylvania farmers angry, Hamilton set troops to crush the uprising

Bill of Rights

first 10 amendments

"Citizen Genet"

revolutionary france's first diplomat to America, he arrived at Charleston and without asking decided to use American ports to outfit French warships (test of American neutrality)

Jay's Treaty

jay = new york federalist and English diplomat assigned by Hamilton to offset pro French secretary of state, treaty established American sovereignty over the northwest and approved commercial relationship with Britain, It settled American conflict with spain b/c spain and Britain were allies. Caused a lot of controversy because jay failed to gain compensation from british.

Pickney's Treaty

settled troubles with spain over florida border and mississippi

"Revolution of 1800"

what Jefferson called his win, the republicans were to revert the tyranny of federalists and begin a new nation (way harder than they thought to change policies

Aaron Burr

he mobilized a huge republican effort to help Jefferson win in 1800 but we was supposed to be elected vp but one extra elector was added and he and Jefferson tied. Then the house had to vote and Jefferson won. He killed Hamilton and was tried and aquited for treason

"Midnight appointments"

adams appointed many people to leave federalist stronghold in the gov

Jeffersonian Vision

agrarian, enlightened society and virtuous citizenry, public education(not successful)

Noah Webster

started American spelling book, but with "American" simplified spelling (honour → honor)

Washington Irvine

American author who wrote satirical histories of the new world

Mason Weems

author who wrote "life of Washington"


religion of Jefferson and franklin who believed in watchmaker god (universalist and Unitarian churches)

Turnpike Era

road with tolls began to ge built in highly populated areas starting in 1792

Eli Whitney

yale inventor, created cotton gin and weapons manufacturing (strengthened slavery which had been dwindling with failing tobacco industry), increased cotton production eightfold and north began a textile industry

Barbary Pirates

Jefferson challenged barbary pirates (in Mediterranean) by sending a fleet over.

Marbury vs. Madison

established judicial review by declaring Judiciary Act of 1801 unconstitutional

John Marshall

chief justice of supreme court

Judicial review

the ability of the supreme court to declare a law unconstitutional

Samuel Chase

tried to impeach for political reasons, but failed, precedent was set that impeachment is only criminal

Toussaint L'Ouverture

leader of slave revolt in Haiti based on French ideals

Louisiana Purchase

Jefferson bought this and doubled the size of the united states for cheap. Napoleon needed money and after loss of Haiti had given up on hopes of French new world

Lewis and Clark

explorer that Jefferson sent to expore new territory. Went all the way to Oregon coast, used missouri R (claimed by England, spain and us)

Zebulon Pike

another explorer who when southwest and looped back to louisiana


british soldiers were forced into naval service many escaped an as a result they stopped all American ships to reforce deserters into service.



The Second Great Awakening

Efforts of conservative theologians to fight spread of religious rationalism, no longer an emphasis on predestination, rather that individual could through faith and good work, go to heaven

John Wesley


Camp meetings


Samuel Slater


Interchangeable parts

eli whitney gun

Chesapeake Affair

commander of American ship (Chesapeake) refused to let british search and impression their ships but British opened fire. Britian refused to renounce impressment but offered compensation. US is furious.


Jefferson wanted to keep country from warring Europe, didn't allow American ships to go to other countries. Very controversial, endided few days before end of term with peaceable coercion

Non-Intercourse Act

peaceable coercion of embargo act, reopened trade with all countries but europe and france unless the countries lifted their own embargoes. Lead US to war with england.

Macon's Bill #2

followed non intercourse act which reopened free trade, but forced france and England to stop blockades (englands repeal was too late)

William Henry

Virginian, advocate of western expansion - told NAs they could integrated with farmers, or move west- fought in war of 1812

Harrison Tecumseh and the Prophet

two NA leaders that with the British opposed American expansion and united NA tribes

"War Hawks"

representatives of both parties that wanted war with britian to claim Spanish territory and remove Indian threat

Henry Clay

nationalist war hawk who believed in expansion, became speaker of the house in 1811,convinced Madison to declare war on england

Battle of New Orleans

American win, large causualties for british

Hartford Convention

lack of support for republicans and the war led New Englanders towards sucession, interrupted by victory at new Orleans- death blow to federalist party

Treaty of Ghent

US dropped demand for renouncation of impressment and English dropped demand for Indian NW buffer state

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