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Society of Cincinnati
formed by revolutionary officers in 1783, congress could not pay their pensions, potential rebellion that George Wahsington stopped
Virginian allied with Hamilton to overhaul articles, contributed greatly to constitution
The Annapolis Convention The Virginia Plan
Hamilton and Madison set up convention to discuss articles, only 5 states came but the delegates approved another conference in philedephia in a year
The New Jersey Plan
1 house legislature based on states (not size), and gave congress power to tax and regulate congress
"The Great Compromise" Three-Fifths Compromise Checks and balances Separation of powers
all compromises that addressed small states vs large states, northern vs southern states, and states vs central power
The Federal structure
fed gov derives power from people and states, only way to avoid tyranny is to keep gov close to people according to montasquieu
Alien and Sedition Acts Virginia and Kentucky
Federalist controversial acts that made it more difficult to become a citizen and allowed gov to persecute those who engaged in sedition against the president (often used to suppress uprisings and prevent republican freedom of the press) Virginia and Kentucky declared these statues void
federalists included Washington and Franklin and wanted stronger central government, anti federalists believed that the constitution defeated the revolutionary ideals
The Federalist Papers
series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison and Jay to convince the nation that constitution was a good idea
The ratification process
changed the rules so that it only had to be 9/13 States it had been ratified by 9 states but waited for VA and NY (the 2 biggest states)- many ratified only on the promise of a bill of rights
"Funding the debt" Assumption of state debts
new gov (Hamilton) took responsibility for the public debt (bonds issued during revolution and those of the states)
The Bank of the United States Hamilton's bank bill
wanted to create national bank to make up for American unorganized banking system (lots of debate about this)
"The first party system"
Republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison for an agrarian republic) vs. Federalists (result of Hamilton's wishes for aristocracy)
Tax on distilleries made small backcountry Pennsylvania farmers angry, Hamilton set troops to crush the uprising
revolutionary france's first diplomat to America, he arrived at Charleston and without asking decided to use American ports to outfit French warships (test of American neutrality)
jay = new york federalist and English diplomat assigned by Hamilton to offset pro French secretary of state, treaty established American sovereignty over the northwest and approved commercial relationship with Britain, It settled American conflict with spain b/c spain and Britain were allies. Caused a lot of controversy because jay failed to gain compensation from british.
"Revolution of 1800"
what Jefferson called his win, the republicans were to revert the tyranny of federalists and begin a new nation (way harder than they thought to change policies
he mobilized a huge republican effort to help Jefferson win in 1800 but we was supposed to be elected vp but one extra elector was added and he and Jefferson tied. Then the house had to vote and Jefferson won. He killed Hamilton and was tried and aquited for treason
agrarian, enlightened society and virtuous citizenry, public education(not successful)
started American spelling book, but with "American" simplified spelling (honour → honor)
religion of Jefferson and franklin who believed in watchmaker god (universalist and Unitarian churches)
yale inventor, created cotton gin and weapons manufacturing (strengthened slavery which had been dwindling with failing tobacco industry), increased cotton production eightfold and north began a textile industry
tried to impeach for political reasons, but failed, precedent was set that impeachment is only criminal
Jefferson bought this and doubled the size of the united states for cheap. Napoleon needed money and after loss of Haiti had given up on hopes of French new world
Lewis and Clark
explorer that Jefferson sent to expore new territory. Went all the way to Oregon coast, used missouri R (claimed by England, spain and us)
british soldiers were forced into naval service many escaped an as a result they stopped all American ships to reforce deserters into service.
The Second Great Awakening
Efforts of conservative theologians to fight spread of religious rationalism, no longer an emphasis on predestination, rather that individual could through faith and good work, go to heaven
commander of American ship (Chesapeake) refused to let british search and impression their ships but British opened fire. Britian refused to renounce impressment but offered compensation. US is furious.
Jefferson wanted to keep country from warring Europe, didn't allow American ships to go to other countries. Very controversial, endided few days before end of term with peaceable coercion
peaceable coercion of embargo act, reopened trade with all countries but europe and france unless the countries lifted their own embargoes. Lead US to war with england.
Macon's Bill #2
followed non intercourse act which reopened free trade, but forced france and England to stop blockades (englands repeal was too late)
Virginian, advocate of western expansion - told NAs they could integrated with farmers, or move west- fought in war of 1812
Harrison Tecumseh and the Prophet
two NA leaders that with the British opposed American expansion and united NA tribes
representatives of both parties that wanted war with britian to claim Spanish territory and remove Indian threat
nationalist war hawk who believed in expansion, became speaker of the house in 1811,convinced Madison to declare war on england
lack of support for republicans and the war led New Englanders towards sucession, interrupted by victory at new Orleans- death blow to federalist party
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