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Clinical Chemistry: Exam 4
Terms in this set (60)
Hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-target endocrine organ axis creates?
a feedback loop that results in intricate control of hormonal levels in the body
Two hormones (ADH and oxytocin) are synthesized in the _____________ and transported to the _________ _________ where they are stored
hypothalamus, posterior pituitary
This hormone that is released from the posterior pituitary, stimulates uterine contraction during labor (pitocin)
Adh targets kidney tubule cells , which?
inc. reabsorption of water
EXCESS GH SECRETION in a child causes?
STIMULATES RELEASE OF THYROID HORMONES FROM THE THYROID GLAND?
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE
STIMULATES adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones (e.g. glucocorticoids)?
ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE (ACTH)
Regulate function of the gonads (ovaries and testes)?
Gonadotropins (fsh and lh)
Stimulates milk production in females?
INCREASES BASAL METABOLIC RATE (BMR) AND BODY HEAT?
"CALCI-ON-IN"- PROMOTES BONE DEPOSITION (THUS LOWERING BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS)?
CONTROLS BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS?
DEC. BLOOD CA++ initiates?
PTH RELEASE AND VICE VERSA
Maintain blood glucose levels?
This is a more potent metabolic stimulator and bronchial dilator (epi pen).
This is a more potent vasoconstrictor (and, thus, controller of BP).
changing melatonin levels may influence variations in such things as?
body temperature, sleep, and appetite.
Adipose cells produce leptin, which is?
indicator of how much fat stores your body has.
Kidneys basically expels ___________________________________________out of the body, then reclaims _____________________________________________at that moment;
cell-free/protein free "blood",whatever the body needs
Filtration- glomerular, occurs in the?
Reabsorption- tubular, occurs in the?
renal tubules and collecting ducts
the volume of filtrate formed each minute by the kidneys.
In Collecting Ducts, few if any aquaporins - water reabsorption dependent upon?
ADH = facultative water reabsorption.
Chronic renal disease?
(GFR < 60)
(GFR < 15)
urea is the?
breakdown product of amino acids; uric acid (end product of nucleic acid metabolism), creatinine (metabolite of creatine).
Urine solute composition consists of?
Na+, K+, PO4-3, SO4-2, and urea
Method for BUN measurement
- urease reaction- NH3 undergoes an additional reaction that results in the production of NAD+
test for creatinine measurement
- uses alkaline picrate to form an orange-red complex; drawback- not specific for creatinine
Specimens required = serum creatinine + 24 hour urine creatinine
Phosphotungstic acid colorimetric assay (blue)?
Uric acid testing
FSH and LH stimulate follicles to?
grow, mature, and secrete estrogen
When estrogen levels hit a threshold?
sudden surge of LH release -ovulation;
Once the Corpus luteum is formed it is stimulated by LH to secrete?
progesterone (maintains the pregnancy, if it occurred).
Hormone release during menopause is due to?
Ovarian response to gonadotropins decrease
During menopause, FSH levels ________
Estradiol levels ________.
bound to sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)- a protein carrier molecule
Active testosterone forms =?
free and weakly bound
*AM testosterone specimens are preferred because?
as testosterone levels peak between 4:00 and 8:00 AM.
Metabolites of testosterone, found in URINE?
A group of hormones; the primary female sex hormones
FSH and LH- Lab Testing?
Hormone levels of FSH and LH vary based on?
cyclic factors- thus, multiple serial specimens may be required for proper interpretation.
Due to specimen instability/degradation, semen specimens should be tested within?
30 minutes after collection
Placenta secretes hormones into?
maternal circulationhCG, progesterone, estradiol/estrone/estriol, and human placental lactogen;
Fetal meconium test?
- presence of fetal stool (not normally found) in amniotic fluid indicates fetal distress (bile pigments in stool tinge the amniotic fluid green
Amniotic fluid test?
cytogenetic testing for genetic abnormalities
AMNIOTIC FLUID- Lab Testing includes?
• Fetal Lung Maturity testing (e.g. L/S ratio)
• Fetal meconium
• Amniotic fluid
Levels of bHCG rise thoughout the___ _________r, peaking at the end of the ___ ___________, then slowly _______?
1st trimester, 1st trimester, decline
Pregnancy Lab Tests- qualitative urine/serum POC tests (typical pregnancy test)-immunoassays; specimen of choice?
= 1st morning urine specimen
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) risk factors?
-A previous diagnosis of gestational diabetes or prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, or impaired fasting glycemia
-Being overweight, obese or severely obese increases the risk
-A previous pregnancy which resulted in a child with a macrosomia
An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants?
somewhere outside of the uterus- e.g. the fallopian tubes, peritoneal cavity;
A lower than expected rise in bHCG levels can indicate an?
HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM (HG)?
extreme morning sickness during pregnancy accompanied by severe nausea and vomiting
HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM (HG) testing?
• Serum ketones
• Urinalysis (pH)
• BMP (electrolytes)
High blood pressure (> 140/90 on two separate occasions) + proteinuria, after week 20 of pregnancy;
hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelet count
90% of NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS (NTD) can be detected by screening?
maternal blood for AFP
Trisomy 21 or better known as Downs Syndrome?
affected individual has one extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21
Most common cause of HDFN =?
Rh incompatibility- D-negative mother (Rh-) conceives a D+ baby; first baby is not affected, but subsequent D+ babies will be affected.
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