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86 terms

Literary Terms

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poetry
A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
simile
A comparison of two things using "like, as, than," or "resembles."
metaphor
A direct comparison of two unlike things
extended metaphor
A metaphor that goes several lines or possibly the entire length of a work
symbolism
When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else
universal symbol
A symbol that is recognized at different times in history and across cultures as having a main meaning
diction
How all of the words in a poem sound once they are placed against one another
dialect
words used to reflect a certain culture, time, or geographic region
denotation
literal definition of a word
connotation
the suggested emotional meaning of a word
imagery
language that appeals to the senses; most are visual
poet
author of the poem
speaker
the "narrator" of the poem; can be different than the poet
mood or tone
The speaker's attitude toward the subject, revealed by the words he or she chooses
hyperbole
Exaggeration often used for emphasis
litotes
Understatement - basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic
Idiom
An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says
personification
An animal given human-like qualities or an object given life-like qualities
allusion
Allusion comes from the verb "allude" which means "to refer to". A reference to something famous
types of allusion
Literary allusion, historical allusion, and biblical allusion
apostrophe
An absent person or inanimate object is directly spoken to as though it or he was present
synedoche
a part stands for the whole or vice versa
onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sound they arenaming or sounds that imitate another sound
anaphora
the same words or phrases are repeated throughtout the poem
alliteration
any sound repeated at the beggining of words
consonance
similar to alliteration EXCEPT the repeated consonance sounds can be anywhere in the words
assonance
when the vowel sounds inside words are repeated
Euphony
Occurs when there is a soft pleasing sound
rhythm
the beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem
inverted word order
the words of a poem are not in usual grammatical construction
meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables; are arranged in a repeating pattern
scansion
the process of marking the metrical pattern of a poem
foot
unit of meter
iambic
unstressed, stressed
pentameter
5 feet on a line
free verse poetry
doesnt have repeating patterns, doesnt have to rhyme, sounds like a conversation to you, is more modern
blank verse poetry
written in lines of iambic pentameter but doesnt use end rhyme
rhyme
words sound alike because they share the same consonant sounds
exact rhyme
uses words with identical end sounds
end rhyme
a word at the end of one line rhymes with a word on another line
internal rhyme
a word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line
near rhyme
imperfect rhyme, close; the words share either the same vowel or constanant sound but not both
visual rhyme
when words look alike, rather than sound like they should rhyme
rhyme scheme
is a pattern of rhyme (usually end)
couplet
a 2 line stanza
triplet
a 3 line stanza
quatrain
a 4 line stanza
poetry form
the appearance of the words on the page
line
a group of words together on one part of the poem
stanza
a group of lines arranged together
enjambed line
when a line of poetry runs over into the nest line in a poem without punctuation
lyric
express an emotion or an idea or describes a scene
haiku
japanese poem written in 3 lines
sonnet
14 line poem with specific line scheme, written in 3 quatrains and ends with a couplet
narrative poem
a poem that tells a story
ballad
a type of narrative poem about love/adventure/relationships
concrete poem
words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem
Cacophony
Has a harsh, grimming sound
dynamic
able to change, changes
static
stays the same
flat
plain, not complicated, not very many aspects
round
complex, many characteristics
direct characterization
comes out and tells reader directly what a character is like
indirect characterization
author drops hints of how/what character is like
methods of indirect characterization
have the character SPEAK WORDS that reveal the trait; have the character ACT in certain ways to reveal the trait; have the character reveal trait in way it DRESSES/LOOKS; OTHER CHARACTERS talk about character
action
refers to everything that goes on or happens in a story
antagonist
the person/thing fighting against the hero of the story; the villain or "negative force"
character
a person in a story
conflict
the "problem" in a story which triggers the action; man vs. man, man vs. society, man vs. himself, man vs. nature, man vs. fate (God)
dialogue
refers to the talking that goes on between characters in a story
mood
the feeling(s) a reader gets from a story
moral
the lesson an author is trying to teach in a story
narrator
the person or character who is telling the story
plot
the action of the story
plot line
shows the action or events in a story; exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution
exposition
part of story (usually beginning) which explains the background and setting of the story; characters are introduced
rising action
leads up to climax
climax
highest point (turning point) in the action of the story
falling action
the action or dialogue necessary to lead the story to a resolution or ending
resolution
the end of a story where all the problems are solved
irony
a type of humor; 3 types of it
verbal irony
sarcasm
dramatic irony
audience/reader knows something characters don't know
situational irony
something unexpected happens that makes a situation humorous
flashback
going into one's memory of the past
foreshadowing
hints that show what happens before it does