Digestive, Blood & Immune Qs for A&P FINAL

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Secretion refers to the
A) breakdown of food into particles small enough to cross epithelial cells.
B) release of substances into the lumen of the gut.
C) input of food into the digestive tract.
D) absorption of nutrients in the gut.
E) progressive dehydration of indigestible residue.
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Terms in this set (31)
The esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the GI tract. These include
A) epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous and simple columnar.
B) muscularis externa has some skeletal muscle.
C) epithelium of mucosa is stratified squamous.
D) epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar and muscularis externa may be striated muscle.
E) epithelium of mucosa is simple columnar.
Match the phase on the left (1-3) with the correct description on the right (4-6):

1. intestinal phase 4. prepares stomach for arrival of food
2. gastric phase 5. stomach empties and decreases secretions
3. cephalic phase 6. stomach secretes juice and mixes food into chyme

A) 1 and 6; 2 and 5; 3 and 4
B) 1 and 5; 2 and 6; 3 and 4
C) 1 and 5; 2 and 4; 3 and 6
D) 1 and 4; 2 and 5; 3 and 6
E) 1 and 6; 2 and 4; 3 and 5
Contraction of the ________ alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds. A) epithelial layer of the mucosa B) muscularis mucosa of the mucosa C) submucosa D) submucosal neural plexus E) adventitiaBIdentify all of the CORRECT pairings below. A) liver; produces amylase B) esophagus; transports material to stomach C) gallbladder; stores bile D) pancreas; secretes bicarbonate E) stomach; maintains an alkaline environmentB, C, DIn the digestive system, HCl is released by ________, whereas HCO3- is secreted primarily from the ________. A) parietal cells of the stomach, liver B) parietal cells of the stomach, pancreas C) the liver, parietal cells of the stomach D) the pancreas, parietal cells of the stomachBFunctions of the large intestine include A) absorption of most products of digestion. B) absorption of water and production of feces. C) chemical digestion of chyme. D) temporary food storage. E) All of these answers are correct.EBile is secreted from the ________ and stored in the ________. A) hepatocytes, pancreas B) pancreas, hepatocytes C) gallbladder, liver D) liver, gallbladderDDuring the process of defecation, A) distension in the rectal wall activates a spinal reflex. B) the internal anal sphincter is consciously relaxed. C) the external anal sphincter contracts. D) the internal anal sphincter contracts. E) distension in the rectal wall inhibits a spinal reflex.A, CThe part of the small intestine most likely to develop an ulcer from exposure to gastric juice is the A) jejunum. B) duodenum. C) pylorus. D) cecum. E) ileum.BThe majority of nutrient absorption occurs in the A) duodenum. B) jejunum. C) colon. D) ileum.BThe taeniae coli are A) polyps that obstruct the sigmoid colon. B) ridges in the mucosa of the colon. C) tears of the colon. D) tumors normally confined in the sigmoid colon. E) longitudinal bands of smooth muscle in the colon wall.EWhich of the following is not found in the large intestines? A) villi B) intestinal glands C) mucous cells D) intestinal crypts E) simple columnar epitheliumAWhich of the following correctly pairs a secretion with where it is released into or from? Select all that apply. A) gastrin: stomach B) bile: large intestine C) pepsin: small intestine D) lipase: duodenum E) amylase: esophagusA, DIn what way does blood assist in immune function? A) Plasma antibodies and white blood cells defend against pathogens. B) Red blood cells transport gases. C) Platelets allow clotting. D) Albumins transport hormones. E) Cells regulate erythropoiesis to insure adequate leukocytes.APlasmin is the enzyme that digests fibrin and dissolves a clot. Knowing this, which of the following could be used as a treatment for a stroke if given early in the disease progression? A) vitamin K B) calcium channel blockers C) tissue plasmin inhibitor D) tissue plasmin activatorDThe percent fraction of formed elements relative to whole blood is the A) specific gravity. B) viscosity. C) differential cell count. D) hematocrit. E) packed volume.CWhich of the following is TRUE regarding red blood cells? Choose one. A) They are produced in the spleen. B) They primarily carry carbon dioxide. C) They survive for approximately one year. D) They are anucleate (They do NOT have a nucleus.) E) They are filtered at the kidney.DEach hemoglobin protein in a red blood cell has 4 binding spots available. Select which molecules are able to bind to the hemoglobin protein. A) bicarbonate (HCO3-) B) carbon monoxide (CO) B) carbon dioxide (CO2) C) oxygen (O2) D) nitrogen (N2)B, CTo respond appropriately, a designated B or T cells must express the correct ________ that will bind to the ________. A) antigen : antigen receptor B) antigen : antibody C) antigenic determinant : antigen D) epitope : antigen E) antigen receptor : antigenAIn an experimental situation focused on the development of a new vaccine, mice were injected with an antigen. Their plasma was removed in order to detect the presence of antibodies. This is an example of A) active immunity. B) autoimmunity. C) passive immunity. D) natural immunity. E) innate immunity.AVaccines are made of ______ that stimulates an active immunity to the pathogen. A. antibodies to a pathogen B. memory T cells that attach a pathogen C. memory B cells that attach a pathogen D. the non-pathogenic part of a microorganism E. a disease-causing pathogenDWhich statement below best explains the difference between active and passive immunity? A) Active immunity depends on the ability of a person's immune system to respond to a pathogen and induces an immunological memory; whereas in passive immunity only antibodies are introduced to the body allowing for a short-term response. B) Active immunity depends on injecting antibodies into the body; whereas passive immunity includes vaccination or immunization of a safe form of the pathogen to create an immunological memory. C) Active immunity refers to natural killer cells actively destroying pathogens; whereas passive immunity describes the indirect targeting of pathogens via the secretion of antibodies. D) Active immunity describes the delayed response to an antigen; whereas passive immunity describes the initial non-specific response to the pathogen.AFrom the pairs below, select the options that correctly pair a type of immune disorder with the description of the response typical of the immune disorder. Select all that are correct. A) Autoimmune : incorrect B) Immunodeficient : lack of or missing C) Allergy : excessive D) Autoimmune : lack of or missing E) Allergy : lack of or missing F) Autoimmune : excessiveA, B, C,