BIO 2 Final

Categorize this life cycle: Remember as the 2 questions (life cyle includes multiple 2n and n cells)
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Sponges reproduce after spawning, when the sperm leaves out of the excurrent syphon, these sperms can then swim into the porocytes of another sponge. Once there, the sperm transforms one choanocyte and can then fertilize another choanocyte. This is a complicated life cycle that relies on______ fertilization.
Which of these groups does NOT act as a parasite on humans or vector for human diseases?MolluscaWhen ecdysozoans grow they must shed, or molt their _____ during ecdysis.CuticleBacteria use ____ to recombine genesHorizontal gene transferBacteria in root nodules are ______ and greatly increase agricultural yields.nitrogen-fixersIn this image how many pairs of pharyngeal openings are present?5When tetrapods came onto land they needed to developLungs & LimbsThe first compartment to be added to the alimentary canal of the worm gut was the _____. Later on birds and crocodiles like to put rocks in here.CropWhat type of animal (phyla?) is parasitizing the roots of the plant in the image?Nematodes (roundworms)Based on this microscope slide image, what group of chordates does this skin sample belong to?Ray-finned fish)How is it that we can have so many types of lizards on campus?They mostly are invasive (brought here accidentally by humans) but now they can cohabit campus because each one fills a slightly different ecological nicheWe enjoy eating crustacean muscles (shrimp and lobster tails, crab legs, etc.), if this is based on how the muscles attach to the skeletal system and nothing else, what other group should taste similar?Hexapods (grasshoppers, Beatles, and ants)In this image the endoskeleton of three groups, showing the gradual progression from fish to early tetrapod's. Which taxa is shown in the middle?Early amphibiansWhich of these is not a major clade of Echinoderms?Sea FlowersThe ____ explains how some organelles have internal membranes and their own DNA.Endosymbiont theoryWhich of the following statements concerning protists is correct?All protists have mitochondria, although in some species they are much reduced and known by different names._______ is a term that refers to similarities among various species that occur because the species are derived from a common ancestor.HomologyThe tree above is based on which type of traits and what is the genus name for the most recent horse?Morphological; EquusMeiosis, as part of the alternation of generations in land plants, producesHaploid sporesThe cnidarian and Echinoderms have similar nervous system control mechanisms, probably due to their radial symmetry. This similar structural and physiological adaptations are the result of?Convergent evolution from distant ancestorsBirds and reptiles need to be able to detect and interpret signals and movement not only to catch prey, but also for their _______Elaborate mating ritualsCarbon fixation is catalyzed, sped up, by _____ a very abundant enzymerubiscoPhotosynthesis converts _____ energy into ____ energy stored in sugarsSolar; ChemicalWhich of the following would make for a good outgroup to the Apes, when building their phylogeny?Rhesus Monkey (an old-world primate)Some homologies can be informative, they do reflect a shared evolutionarily history. Which of these lines of evidence would be a "helpful" homology when constructing a tree for all tetrapods?Presence of gill slits & tailsBefore mammal forelimbs below all contain similar bones, just modified for different functions. These appendages share and evolutionary history, they evolved from an ancestral feature. Therefore they are _____ structures.HomologousWhich biologist first proposed a simple phylogenetic tree based on common descent and shared characteristics?Charles DarwinCommonalities to both charophytes and vascular land plants include I. sporopollenin II. lignin III. xylem IV. cellulose V. chlorophyll b.I, II, IV and V onlyThe figure below represents a _____ lifecycle ( figure has mostly haploid cells and 1/4 diploid cell)Haploid DominantThe water potential in the plants roots is generally _____ than in the leavesHigherWhen examining the phylogenetic tree of land plants, why are the angiosperms split into three groups (magnolids, monocots, and eudicots)?The monocots show a different pattern of vascular bundle distributionWhat characteristics are shared by all land plants?- Alternation of generations - multicellular 2N embryo - Mycorrhizal symbionts -Spores with tough outer coat -CuticleIn the simplified tree, which group is most dependent on water for both sex and growth?BryophytesWhich of these, if true, would support the claim that the ancestral cnidarians had bilateral symmetry? 1. Nigerian larvae possesses anterior - posterior, left - right, and dorsal - ventral aspects. 2. Cnidarians have fewer Hox genes than bilaterians. 3. All extant cnidarians are dipoblastic 4. All cnidarians are acoelomate1 onlyOrganisms with ____ and bilateral symmetry are more efficient at moving, responding to stimuli, and finding food.CephalizationOn average eukaryotic cells are many times ______ than bacterial cells.LargerProtist are incredibly diverse forming at least 8 _____ compared to the better know animals, plants, and fungi.SupergroupsAt some point in the late Hadean Earth, enough materials, energy and conditions where conducive to forming macromolecules. This Original material is often called the _____.Primordial SoupIn the 5 to 7 million years that the hominid lineage has been diverging from its common ancestor with the great apes, dozen of hominid species have arisen, often with several species coexisting in time and space. As recently as 30,000 years ago, Homo sapiens coexisted with homo neanderthalensis. Both species had large brains and advanced intellects. The fact that these traits were common to both species is most easily explained by which of the following?Common descentWhich of these meeting systems is the rarest? (only a few bird species employ it)Polyandry (one female mates with multiple males)Which of these taxes does not have external fertilization?BirdsAnurans (frogs and toads) use the physical process of _____ to improve chances that they're gametes combine even though they are externally fertilized.amplexusThe largest cell based on diameter in the human body is theOvumDuring human oogenesis the final result is:1 ovum & 3 polar bodiesBased on this figure, the hydra has only one opening in its _____ and therefore the gut is ______Gastrovascular Cavity (GVC); BlindSponges use ____ to create a _____ which allows them to filter feed.Choanocytes; CurrentWhich of these types of sponges has the greatest surface area of the choanocytes (red cells)?CThe synapomorphies of the Cnidarians include:Radial symmetry in adultsThe ability to ____ is a huge benefit to birds. It allows them to exploit the resources/conditions of multiple ecosystems across both space and season.Migrate from feeding to breeding grounds (and back again)All mammals have:Bodies covered in fur or hairOne important evolutionary change that occurred with the rise of animals isA change from a microbe-only environment to one of large producers, predators, and preyIn terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of cnidarian?choanocyteWhich of the following is unique to animals?nervous conduction and muscular movementWhat part of our ("eukaryotic") cells is most responsible for defending against bacterial infections?Cell membrane_____ bacteria are harmful to humans, or pathogenic.FewThe notochord is a flexible rod-shaped structure composed of ____ and located ____ the hollow nerve cordCollagen; below (dorsal to)Tunicate larva have very rudimentary eyespots, the adult sea squirts have _____.No eyesWhich of the strategies has evolved to remove nitrogenous waste from the body?All of these are solutions to remove the nitrogenous waste from the body.The integument of which taxa can change color in response to environmental stimuli? a. Anuran Amphibians b. Cephalopods c. Squamate reptilesAll of these taxa have some species with color changing skinWhich organ system is responsible for supporting the organisms in the environment? In large terrestrial organisms this require solid internal structures.Skeletal systemThe phylogeny of squamates shows that _____Snakes are a monophyletic groupWater is essential to the movement, defense, feeding and gas exchange of Sea Stars. The water enters the body through the dorsal _____ and travels down each arm via the _____.Madreporite; Water Vascular SystemPlastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence ofSecondary endosymbiosisOne morphological feature of modern cetaceans is a vestigial pelvic girdle. If it is determined that cetacean lineage diverged from the artiodactyls' lineage after the divergence of pigs and other artiodactyla, then what should be true of the vestigial pelvic girdle of cetaceans?It should be considered a shared derived character of cetaceans.What can be properly inferred from figure 20.5?In the "without" tree, pigs are more closely related to hippos than are whales.In this figure, which structure produces haploid gametes by mitosis?GametophyteArthropods sense the world using many different adaptations (pectines, antennae, feelers, eyes, etc.) But they all are connected via ______Eventual nerve cord that feeds impulses to the brain.Sharks have special sensory organ/tissue located on their snouts, called _____ that detect minute changes in the electrical fields, and this allows them to find pray in dark, murky or busy watersAmpullae of LorenziniPhotorespiration is affected by ______ and ______, both reducing the amount of sugars produced by plants.Heat; droughtCAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because theyfix CO2 by combining it with RuBP in the Calvin cycleUsing this phylogenetic tree, which character state separates the sister genera Homo (Humans) and Pan?Chromosome 5 inversionWhen a character matrix is arranged with the fewest changes, it is said to be:ParsimoniousA set of characteristics that define a clade are known as ______.SynapomorphiesDarwinian evolution represented a paradigm shift by breaking with centuries of thought. Which of the following was also a paradigm shift? a. Plate tectonics and continental drift b. Germ theory of disease c. Heliocentric model of the solar systemAll of these are shiftsHumans and all other mammals have a(n) _______ life cycleDiploid DominantPlants must defend against attacks from insects and other herbivores. Which of these materials or resources is derived from a plant defensive tactic?Rubber or latexThe vascular system of land plants works to transport:Water and minerals in the xylemWhat characteristics are shared by all land plants? Select all that apply:-Alternation of generation -Multicellular 2N embryo -Cuticle -Spores with tough outer coat -Mycorrhizal symbiontsWhich of the following is true of members of the phylum Cnidaria?They coordinate movements through a non-centralized nerve netEukaryotes are monophyletic and all contain _____, which stores and protects their genetic information.NucleiThe ______ explains how some organelles have internal membranes and their own DNA.Endosymbiont TheoryMass extinction events lead to at least a ______ decline in the total number of species.60%Strong evidence in support of the common ancestry of all life comes from: a. The fact that decomposers include both bacteria and fungi. b. The ability of clans to convert light energy to chemical energy. c. The existence of a nearly universal genetic code. d. The universal use of protein catalyst by all cells.C. The existence of a nearly universal genetic code.Generalized mill strategy is to produce maximum _____ of gametes. The generalized female strategy is to produce maximum _______ of gametes.numbers; qualityWhich taxa has alternation of body types and can have sexual or asexual reproduction?CnidariaIn this diagram the red arrows are targeting the release from what gland?OvariesWhat structure of mollusca makes internal fertilization difficult and cephalopods?MantleWhich statement about the domain archaea is true?Genetic prospecting has recently revealed the existence of many previously unknown archaean species.Three living species X, Y, and Z share a common ancestor T, as do extinct species U and V. A grouping that consists of species T, X, Y, and Z (but not U or V) makes upA paraphyletic groupAlthough not present in all bacteria, this cell covering often enables cells that possess it to resist the defenses of host organisms, especially their phagocytic cells.capsule (allows to resist immune system/response)which of the following steps has not yet been accomplished by scientist studying the origin of life?formation of the protocells that use DNA to direct the polymerization of amino acidsScientists have identified two major branches of prokaryotic evolution. What was the basis for dividing prokaryotes into two domains?genetic characteristics such as ribosomal RNA sequencesOver time, new forms of life have arisen by ______modification of existing structures or existing developmental genes. (evolution is NOT goal-driven)On early Earth, more than 4 BYA, environmental conditions were very different from those today because ______only early Earth was intensely bombarded by large rocks and ice from space.Which part of the angiosperm gametes are competing once they get to the stigma?Pollen tubesGymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because theyhave pollen (think- you don't need an allergy shot if exposed to a fern)If a plant is infected with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, what is the most probable effect on the plant?It will likely grow faster than an uninfected plantMembers of the genus Amoeba, are heterotrophic, moving with pseudopod, and can cause pathologies (i.e amoebic dysentery). They would therefore be in the:Animal-like protistUnlike animals which grow in a coordinated manner, plants add new growth to old growth. This is known as what type of growth? This is helpful when aging a plant.modular (ex. bamboo stalk grows in segments and that's how we can tell its age)Plants try to maximize ________________, by decreasing energy needed for vs. energy created by photosynthesis.growth potentialAlthough most animals are bilaterally symmetrical, a few exhibit radial symmetry. What is an advantage of radial symmetry?It allows animals to gather food from all sidesHow does segmentation enhance annelid locomotion?Muscle contractions can be localized to specific regions of the body to coordinate movement.Organisms with a solid blastocoel filled with mesoderm surrounding the coelom are ____________, like the Chordates.PseudocoelomatesWhich of the following is NOT a true statement comparing exoskeletons and endoskeletons?Only endoskeletons can grow as an organism growsCnidarians have two tissue layers, and a variable layer of ___________ separating themmesogleaEvidence that viruses are not alive includes the fact that they are______________.are non-cellularmitotic activity by the apical meristem of a root makes which of the following more possible?increase of the aboveground meristemWhich of the following are the best examples of homologous structures?bones of a bat wing and bones in a human forelimbWhich of the following statements correctly describes the most probable fate of a newly emerging virus that causes high mortality in its hostThe newly emerging virus will die out rather quickly or will mutate to be far less lethal.Which of these components of reproduction is under the greatest pressure from Natural Selection?sperm competitionOrganisms with a solid blastocoel filled with mesoderm are _______, like the flatworms.AceolomatesSponges have porocytes which create currents, by pulling water in through the ______ on the sides and out the top osculumIncurrent poreThe hox-genes, determine the order of development or the body plan. The genes start building at the head and work the tail in this anatomical direction.Anterior- PosterioorThe flagellated cells or ______ of a sponge line the inner surfaces. They can pull huge volumes of water through the animal every minute.ChoanocytesThe eggs of amphibians are typically deposited in the ______ where they grow and develop into a tailed _______.Water; TadpoleBoth the ground-up and trees-down hypothesis of how dinosaurs learned (evolved) flight are both dependent on dinosaurs feeding on what taxa (that independent evolved wings)?HexapodsEvidence indicates that an ancestral finch species from South America arrived on the Galapagos islands and formed many new species, adapting to the diverse environment on the islands. With the evolution of these new bird species on the Galapagos Islands, we would expect to find a correspondingIncrease in the number of bird parasites on the Galapagos Islands.The arthropods have a(n) ______ circulatory system, and some use ____ to obtain oxygen.Open; tracheal tubesWhy are insects so diverse?Insects are just the right size, coevolved with flowering plants, and can flyBy increasing _____ in the air bacteria radically changed the atmosphere.Oxygen gasIn which chordate group uses incurrent and excurrent siphons to create water flow to filter foodUrochordates (sea squirts)Which group is the most diverse within the Vertebrates?Actinopterygi (Ray-finned fishes)Insects and crustaceans most mechanical grinding and breaking down food particles occurs in the _______.foregutWhen food is ingested by Platyhelminthes it must first be digested in an extra cellular way, this is best done by adding ______ to the GVC. Later indigestion, smaller particles can be consumed via intracellular digestion (______)Enzymes; phagocytosisThis figure demonstrates three organ systems, which one is not found in all triploblastic animals?Skeletal systemBased on what you have learned so far, what is not true about this (iguana) campus resident?It maintains body temperature through metabolism.Echinoderm movement relies on thousands of tiny, mucus covered _______ which attach to the substrate and can pry the prey items open.Tube feetIn a sample of pond water, a new organism is identified with the following characteristics: it consists of 70 cells surrounded by rigid cell walls that join the cell together. Inside each of these identical cells are mitochondria and chloroplasts. Such an organism would most likely be classified asColonial photosynthetic eukaryoteThere's still some controversy among biologist about whether Neanderthals should be placed within the same species as modern humans or into a separate species of their own. Most DNA sequence data analyzed so far indicates that there was interbreeding between Neanderthals and humans; however, it appears to have been limited and mostly unidirectional. Which species concept is most applicable as a method of analysis in this example?PhylogeneticThe dorsal hollow nerve cord of vertebrates evolved from the enfolding of which germ layer?EctodermPlants that partition their photosynthetic pathways temporarily are known as ______ plantsCAMWhich color is most reflected in a green plantGreenThe ______ species concept, is based on the idea that a species is a branch or lineage on the tree of life, all descending from a common ancestorEvolutionaryWhen constructing a phylogenetic tree, parsimony dictates that the tree should represent the ______ changes in character state.leastLand plants have symbiotic interactions with soil ______ that create mycorrhizas. These interactions increase ______ and therefore ______.Fungi; surface are; metabolismThe first land plants resembled bryophytes and were similarly small and limited to moist environments. The emergence of plants with _____ allowed for rapid colonization of land and rapid vertical group.Vascular tissueThe massive general Sherman tree in California, is over 100m tall and may weigh millions of pounds, but it is an independent _____.SporophyteThe outer layer of all plants is composed of dermal tissue or ______EpidermisSponges are most accurately described as:Filter feedersMost astronomers placed the origin of the universe at about ______ when the Big Bang occurred.13.7 GYAThe origin of all matter (stars ,elements, planets, and life) began approximately 13GYA in a ______Big BangWhy are these female whiptail lizard grasping and holding onto another female?Pseudocopulation stimulates the hormones needed to release the diploid eggAll reptiles lay amniotic eggs on land and all have internal fertilization. The structure used to inject sperm into the female reproductive tract is highly variable. Which of these pairs is incorrect?Male crocodiles use paired claspers to grasp and inject sperm into the female.Humans are sexually dimorphic. What characteristics are not similar between males and females.All of these constitute secondary sexual characteristics.What structures developed to ensure that placental mammals could feed and care for their young long after they were born?Nipples and mammary glands