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Goodman Psych. Chapter 2
Terms in this set (85)
Theory, Hypothesis, Research
Three essential elements of the scientific theory_______________
______concept or idea to explain prior observations.
_______testable prediction of an outcome that supports theory.
_______the systematic and careful collection of data.
______theories generate a variety of hypotheses
_____theories are difficult to Falsify.
___________:Observing behavior and providing a systematic and objective analysis.
_______:same participants measured multiple occasions over periods of time
_________:Different participants vary in age ranges, measured once.
_____Descriptive studies- No manipulation, Theories
_____Descriptive Studies- Quantitative relation
• Correlation does not equal _______
• Assessment and coding of behavior
• Ex. Functional assessment of behavior
-Record occurrences of a behavior
-Record the setting and outcomes
-Conclude: rewarded with attention
• Unusual groups or individuals
• Ex., Neuropsychology: Phineas Gage
-Damage to frontal lobes
-Changes to personality
• Asking people about thoughts, actions, or feeling
-Survey, interview, log
• Ex. Emotional Response
-Rate on scale
Response Base Method
• Quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to a specific stimulus
• Computers- precise and automated
• Example of stimulus judgment
-Report item color
Body and Brain Activity
• Changes in psychology co-occur behaviors or mental states
• When and Where?
____: Objective observations or measurements
_____: Repetition of an experiment to confirm the results
Descriptive, correlational, and experimental
There are three main types of designs:________________
______: Something in the world that can vary and that a researcher can measure
_________: A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior
__________: a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation
_______: Systematic errors in observation that occur because o an observers expectations
________: identifying variables and quantifying them so they can be measured
________: potential difference
_________- can affect both the participants actions and the way observers perceive those actions
Experimenter expectancy effect
_____________: Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer
_________: a research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them
________: a problem encountered in correlational studies; the researchers in a relationship between two variables, but they cannot determine which variable , may have caused changes in the other variable
Third variable problem
________: a problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest
_______: A study that test causal hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables
____________: A comparison group; the participants in a study that receive no intervention or receive am intervention that is unrelated to the independent variable being investigated.
_______: Treatment groups; the participants in a study that receive the intervention.
____________: In an experiment, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable
______: In an experiment, the variable that is affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
______; Anything tat affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the experimental condition of a study
A researcher needs to ensure that the only thing that varies is the _________________.
Other potential confound include change to _________ of the measuring instruments.
Time of day/ seasons
Changes in the___________ or _________ when the experiment is conducted can also confound the results.
________; Everyone in the group the experimenter is interested in.
_______: a subset of a population
The sample should represent the population, and the best method for making this happen is _____________.
The sample should represent the _________.
__________: the degree to which the findings of an experiment can be generalized outside the laboratory.
___________: In an experiment, unintended differences between the participants in different groups
__________: Placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in such a ay that each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable.
Once the researcher has established the best design for a particular study, the next task is to choose a method for___________.
Biological, individual, social, and cultural
The four major research categories that span the levels of analysis:________________________-
Culturally sensitive research
_________________: Studies that take into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions
_________: when the knowledge that one is being observed alters the behavior being observed
The ________ refers to changes in behavior that occur when people know that others are observing them.
Interpretation of case studies is often very ___________.
By Asking people about themselves, their thoughts, their actions, and their feelings is a much more interactive way to____________.
__________ questions allow respondents to provide any answers they think of and to answer in as much detail as they feel is appropriate.
____________ questions require respondent to select from a fixed number of options, as in a multiple-choice exam.
______: Methods of data collection which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in questionaries' or surveys
Socially desirable responding
______: the person responds in a way that is most socially acceptable.
_________: people tend to describe themselves in especially positive ways, often because people believe things about themselves that are not necessarily true.
_______: a device that measures electrical activity in the brain.
_____ methods measure changes in the rate, or speed, of the flow of blood to different regions of the brain.
_______: a method of brain imaging that asses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream.
_______: a method of brain imaging that produces high-quality images of the brain.
_______: The use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions.
Humans are subject to the same laws of nature as other ______.
Institutional review Boards
___________: Groups of people responsible for reviewing proposed research to ensure that it meets the accepted standards of science and provides for the physical and emotional well-being of research participants
_______ means that the researches collect no personal information.
________ means that participants make a knowledgeable decision to participate.
The ___________ is an analysis of whether the research is important enough to warrant placing participants at risk.
_____________: the extent to which the date collected in a study address the research hypothesis in the way intended.
_________: The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions
__________: the extent to which an experimental measure is free from error.
______________: statistics that summarize the data collected in a study
_______: a measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole
_____: a measure of central tendency that is the arithmetic average of a set of numbers.
___________: a measure of central tendency that is the value in a set of numbers that fails exactly halfway between the lowest and highest values.
___: a measure of central tendency that is the most frequent score or value in a set of numbers
___________: in a set of numbers, how widely dispersed the values are from each other and the mean
_____: a statistical measure of how far away each value is on average from the mean.
_______: a graphical depiction of the relationship between two variables.
If two variables have a _______ correlation, they increase and decrease together.
If two variables have a _______ correlation, as on increases in value, the other decreases in value.
_______: a set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exists between sets of numbers
________: a "study of studies" that combines the findings of multiple studies to arrive at a conclusion.
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