37 terms

Society and Culture Glossary

HSC course Society and Culture terms.
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acculturation
learning process where knowledge is transferred from one culture to another.
beliefs
principles accepted and shared among a group of people. accepted as true regardless of any factual evidence.
class
groups of people thought to have common features of characteristics.
cooperation
individuals working together to pursue common goals.
cultural relativism
judging one culture by the standards of another
culture
demonstrated by beliefs, customs, values, laws, arts, technology and artefacts that link a society together. refers to the knowledge, ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that give each society its coherence and distinctive way of life. allows members to gain meaning from the objects and ideas around them.
customs
established ways of thinking and acting
discrimination
active version of prejudice. can be positive or negative.
empowerment
groups within a society gaining access to power structures and obtaining control over their own lives and destiny
enculturation
learning how to use accepted patterns of cultural behaiour that your culture prescribes gives you full membership of your society.
environment
physical, social or psychological setting.
globalisation
emergence of a global culture brought about by developments such as: world information systems, TNCs, global sport, tourism, growth of global military and economic systems. resulting in a conciousness of the world as a single place.
identity
an individual's comprehension of their self
ideology
a coherent set of ideas that bind together a set of beliefs. a cultural plan with conceived ways of putting that plan into action.
industrialisation
process whereby the means of production are based in mass production utilising devloping technology. basis of wealth of many countries in the 21stC
macro world
the world you share with a larger population and know through public knowledge.
micro world
immediate world, specific to the individual. known through personal experience.
modernisation
social change whereby supposedly less-advanced societies adopt elements of supposedly more-advanced societies, such as: technology, education and ways of thinking.
myth
traditional stories about supernatural beings or events
mythology
ideas and beliefs surrounding your chosen popular culture
philosophy
a system of principles and thinking that guides practical affairs
power
allows people to bring others to do things they may not otherwise do.
responsibilties
actions that are expected of a full member of a particular society
rights
the things that society regards as your entitlement
rites of passage
events or ceremonies that acknowledge an accepted change of status
social and cultural literacy
communicate effectively; aware of own place in society; willing to make a contribution; can understand the difference between cultures without making value judgements; interested in the micro and macro world; critical discernment towards media.
social construct
the way society gives meaning to a term or concept. e.g. gender
socialisation
process whereby an individual learns to become an accepted and fully functioning member of a society
society
way people organise themselves. groups, networks, organisations, institutions and systems that people use to link themselves with others to form a society
symbols
abstract principles that may be represented by images.
time
measured in past, present and future. indicator of continuity and change.
values
core beliefs and basis of the shared behaviour of an inidvidual or cultural group.
westernisation
the way a country adopts the values common in major western countries such as: democracy, capitalism and the adoption of free market economic industrialisation.
worldviews
the shared principles (philosophy) of a belief system and the associated ideology helps people arrive at a certain way or percieving the world and the cosmos, that is, a worldview.
conflict theory
marx and dahrendorf
socio-cultural evoltuionary theory
darwin
functionalist theory
durkheim and parson