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Goodman Psych. Chapter 3
Terms in this set (80)
The Nervous System
_________is responsible for everything we think, feel, and do
_____:cells that receive, integrate and selectively transmit information.
Central Nervous System
_______:brain and spinal cord
Pheripheral nervous system
_________:all other neurons
Sensory, Interneurons, Motor
Three main types of neurons:________________
Electron signal passes along the _____
_______ ions run in, _______ ions run out
Chemical signals cross ______
_______ store waste.
Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
What are the 4 lobes of the brain?
Functional precision determined by______.
________: neural changes resulting from experience.
_________:deepen old paths or create new ones, both are not eaily undone thus behavioral habits are hard to diminish
Gene expression is affected by _______.
Learning and memory
Plasticity Represents the biological basis of:
______:lead to variations in brain structures neurotransmitters, hormones.
they communicate selectively with other neurons to form circuits, or ___________
Neurons are specialized for ______
electrical impulse chemical signals
Neurons are powered by ________ and communicate with other nerve cells through ___________.
______: One of the three types of neurons; these afferent neurons detect information from the physical world and pass that information to the brain.
_________: One of the three types of neurons; these efferent neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby producing movement
______: One of the three types of neurons; these neurons communication only with other neurons.
_____ and ______ neurons control movement.
______: automatic motor response
_____ : branchlike extensions of the neuron that detect information from other neurons.
_______: site, in the neuron, where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated.
________: small nodules, at the ends of axons, that release chemical signals from the neuron into the synapse.
________: the gap between the axon of a "sending" neuron and the dendrite of a "receiving" neuron; it contains extra cellar fluid.
______: a fatty material, made up of glial cells, that insulates the axon and allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along the axon.
nodes of Ranvier
________: small gaps of exposed axon, between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials are transmitted.
Resting Membrane Potential
_______: The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active.
_______: When a neuron has more negative ions inside it than outside it.
_______: The neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons.
_____: signals depolarize the cell membrane.
_______ signals hyperpolarize the cell.
I the total amount of excitatory input surpasses the neuron's threshold, an __________ is generated.
_________: the principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time, although frequency can vary; a neuron either fires or not- it cannot partially fire.
________: Chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another.
_____: in neurons, specialized protein molecules on the postsynaptic membrane; neurotransmitters bind to these molecules after passing across the synaptic cleft
_________: the process whereby a neurotransmitter is taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons, thereby stopping its activity.
________: drugs that enhance the actions of neurotransmitters.
__________: drugs that inhibit the actions of neurotransmitters
__________: the neurotransmitter responsible for motor control at the junction between nerves and muscles;.
_______: a monoamine neurotransmitter responsible for bursts of energy after an event that is exciting or threatening.
___________: a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in states of arousal and awareness.
_______: a monoamine neurotransmitter important for a wide range of psychological activity, including emotional states, impulses control, and dreaming
_________: a monoamine neurotransmitter involved in motivation, reward, and motor control over voluntary movement.
_____: the primary inhibitory transmitter in the nervous system.
_________: the primary excitatory transmitter in the nervous system.
________: Neurotransmitters involved in natural pain reduction and reward.
______: a neurotransmitter involved in pain perception.
_____: is the practice of assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumbs on the human skull
________: a small portion of the left frontal region of the brain, crucial for the production of language.
_________: an extension of the spinal cord
_________: a large, convoluted protuberance at the back of the brain; it is essential for coordinated movement and balance
The spinal cord is a rope of ______.
gray matter/ white matter
In cross section, the cord is seen to be composed of two distinct tissue types:_________
_____ matter is dominated by neurons cell bodies.
_______ matter consists mostly of axons and the fatty sheaths that surround them.
______: a brain structure that is involved in the regulation of bodily functions, including body temperature, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, it also influence our basic motivated behaviors.
_________; the gateway to the brain; it receives almost all incoming sensory information before that information reaches the cortex
_________: a brains structure associated with the formation of memories.
_______: a brain structure that serves a vital role in our learning to associate things with emotional responses and in processing emotional information.
________: a system of subcortical structures that are important for the production of planned movement.
_________: the outer layer of brain tissue, which forms the convoluted surface of the brain.
______: regions of the cerebral cortex- at the back of the brain- important for vision.
_______ lobe is important for the sense of touch
_____ lobes is important for processing auditory information.
_______ lobes are important for movement
________; the front most portion of the frontal lobes, especially prominent in humans; important for attention.
autonomic nervous system
_____; a component of the peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system ad the body's glands and internal organs.
somatic nervous system
______________: a component of the peripheral nervous system; it transmits sensory signals and motor signals between the central nervous system and the skin, muscles, and joints.
_______ division is a division of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for action.
________ division is a division of the autonomic nervous system; it returns the body to its resting state.
_____; a communication system that uses hormones to influence thoughts, behaviors, and action.
________: chemical substance, release from endocrine glands, that trael through the bloodstram to targeted tissues.
______: The main endocrine glands involved in sexual behavior: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries.
__________; a gland located at the base of the hypothalamus; it sends hormonal signals to other endocrine glands, controlling their release of hormones.
_______: Structures within the cell body that are made up of DNA, DNA consists of genes
______: cross-sensory experience
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