Psychological Disorders and Treatment M/C exam

Which of the following biomedical therapies is most commonly practiced today?

- systematic desensitization
- electroconvulsive therapy
- counterconditioning
- drug therapy
- psychosurgery
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Drew begins therapy to talk through some of the recent issues that he has been having that are causing him anxiety. His therapist uses the eclectic approach to alleviate some of his symptoms. Which of the following is Drew most likely seeking help from?

- licensed clinical social worker
- clinical counselor
- psychiatric social worker
- clinical psychologist
- psychiatrist
Counterconditioning employs techniques first used by: - Carl Rogers. - Sigmund Freud. - B. F. Skinner. - Aaron Beck. - John Watson.- John Watson. Counterconditioning is a form of conditioning that involves the conditioning of an unwanted behavior or response to a stimulus. It employs the principles of classical conditioning as used by John B. Watson.Kendall is in a constant state of apprehension and is also tense and jittery. Upon seeing a psychologist she will most likely be diagnosed as suffering from a(n): - bipolar disorder. - generalized anxiety disorder. - obsessive-compulsive disorder. - phobia. - major depressive disorder.- generalized anxiety disorder. GAD or generalized anxiety disorder is characterized by persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry about everyday things.Which of the following biomedical therapies is the most commonly practiced today? - drug therapy - lobotomy - ECT - frontal lobe electrical stimulation - supplemental therapy- drug therapy Drug therapy is the most common form of biomedical therapy.During Kim's therapy sessions her therapy employs the use of active listening. Kim is most likely engaging in ____________ therapy. - self-help - Gestalt - client-centered - RET - psychodynamic- client-centered In client-centered therapy, the therapist takes a non-directive approach.Disorganized and fragmented thinking are characteristics of: - anxiety. - depression. - schizophrenia. - ADD. - bipolar I.- schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, behaves, and feels. Disorganized and fragmented thinking are characteristics.One common characteristic found in the personal history of those diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder is a __________. - parent with mental illness - genetic predisposition - history of sexual abuse - viral illness as an infant - rich fantasy life as a child- history of sexual abuse Most people diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder have a history of sexual abuse as a child.Which of the following disorders are panic attacks mostly associated with? - personality disorders - schizophrenia - dissociative disorders - anxiety disorders - mood disorders- anxiety disorders Panic attacks, sometimes known as anxiety attacks are characterized by intense fear or apprehension.Anti-depressants such as Prozac, work to block the reuptake of of which neurotransmitter? - dopamine - acetylcholine - serotonin - GABA - norepinephrine- serotonin Prozac is a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake of sertonin in the synapse.Often those suffering from mental illnesses are released from treatment before they should be released, due to a variety of factors. Unfortunately many end up back in treatment for the same problems contributing to: - a "revolving door" pattern. - a lack of therapeutic techniques that are effective. - more productivity in the workforce. - a shortage of clients for therapists. - an increase in group therapy.- a "revolving door" pattern. Fiscal and insurance constraints contribute to a mental health care crisis in our country.On Saturday Dylan was feeling elated, creative, and began a 2 day spending spree. The following Tuesday he began to feel hopeless and had a very negative outlook on life. Dylan would most likely be diagnosed as having: - bipolar disorder. - schizophrenia. - panic disorder. - a phobia. - major depressive disorder.- bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that is characterized by unusual mood shifts that generally go from high to low.Depression is often started by: - stressful life experiences. - a breakdown in selective attention. - excessive levels of norepinephrine. - external attributions of blame. - unrealistic optimism.- stressful life experiences. Chronic stressful life situations can lead to the development of depression if you are not coping well.Sydney went to a therapist because she was experiencing anxiety. She finds herself feeling quite depressed on some days, but excited, creative, and sleepless on others. Her therapist is likely to diagnose here with which of the following disorders? - schizophrenia - phobic disorder - panic disorder - anxiety disorder - bipolar I disorder- bipolar I disorder Manic and depressive states are characteristic of bipolar disorder.Khyle has been in and out of jail many times for crimes like assault and bulgarly. He feels no remorse for his victims and never seems to learn his lesson. Khyle would most likely be diagnosed with: - borderline personality disorder. - paranoid personality disorder. - executive personality disorder. - narcissistic personality disorder. - antisocial personality disorder.- antisocial personality disorder. Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a lack of regard for anyone else.Which of the following mood stabilizing drugs is a common option for those who are suffering from bipolar disorder? - Xanax - chlorpromazine - Zoloft - clozapine - lithium- lithium Lithium is a mood stabilizer that can treat and prevent the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder.Excessive dopamine activity, enlarged ventricles, and frontal lobe dysfunction all correlate with which of the following disorders? - bipolar disorder - dissociative identity disorder - eating disorders - depression - schizophrenia- schizophrenia Enlarge ventricles and excess dopamine are linked with schizophrenia. The excess in dopamine provide and explanation for hallucinations.Jason believes he works for the FBI. He is very secretive about the documents he keeps in his home office and locks his wife out because he believes she may be conspiring against him. Jason is most likely suffering from: - bipolar disorder - schizophrenia - anxiety - dissociative identity disorder - depression- schizophrenia Schizophrenia is characterized by delusions.Which of the following is an effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors? - A reduction in serotonin. - Elevated arousal and moods. - Reduced hallucinations. - A reduction in involuntary muscle movement. - Reduction in norephinephrine.- Elevated arousal and moods. SSRIs are a class of drugs typically used as anti-depressants for their mood lifting effects.Light exposure therapy has proven most useful in treating which of the following? - anorexia - seasonal affective disorder - bulimia - schizophrenia - dissociative identity disorder- seasonal affective disorder Seasonal affective disorder is a depressive disorder related to changes in seasons. In areas where there is less sun it has proven to be helpful in countering the effects of depression.Evelyn avoids social events at all costs and will only eat in her own kitchen. She is most likely suffering from: - social phobia - agoraphobia - obsessive-compulsive disorder - major depression - anxiety disorder- social phobia A social phobia is characterized by an irrational fear of normal social situations.In treatment of mental illness, a psychiatrist is more likely than a psychologist to: - exclusively treat family units. - use biomedical treatment options. - see patients with physical health problems. - use group therapy. - exclusively use free association to treat patients.- use biomedical treatment options. A psychiatrist is a medical doctor who can prescribe medicine, thus would most likely do so in conjunction with other types of psychotherapy.Which of the following neurotransmitters is there an overabundance of during a manic episode of someone suffering from bipolar disorder? - serotonin - ACh - epinephrine - dopamine - Norepinephrine- Norepinephrine When levels of norepinephrine drop below normal levels it can lead to depressive states while and increase in norepinephrine leads to manic episodes.The major purpose of the DSM is to __________ disorders. - diagnose - identify - analyze - categorize - classify- diagnose While the DSM does provide classifications, it's main purpose is to diagnose mental illnesses.If you have a relatively low level of brain arousal , a trait theorist would suggest that you are a(n) _____________ who would seek ____________. - extravert; isolation - extravert; stimulation - introvert; stimulation - introvert; isolation - extravert; optimal level of arousal- extravert; stimulation PET scans show that extravert's normal brain arousal is low and that due to this they seek environmental stimulation.The humanistic perspective on psychology focuses on: - emphasizes the importance of childhood on personality development. - emphasizes the growth of what is considered "psychologically healthy" individuals. - emphasizes the importance of individual traits in shaping personality. - emphasize the importance of biology in shaping personality. - emphasizing the driving force of the unconscious motivations in personality.- emphasizes the growth of what is considered "psychologically healthy" individuals. Humanistic psychologists brought attention to the growth potential of psychologically healthy people.One's perception of control over his or her life is called: - an internal locus of control. - reciprocal determinism. - the reality principle. - the self-reference phenomenon. - the spotlight effect.- an internal locus of control. An internal locus of control describes one's perception as having control over his or her environment and the things that happen to them.Andy can read a book without distraction in the cafeteria. This best illustrates the concept of: - selective attention. - retinal disparity. - continuity. - perceptual constancy. - the phi phenomenon.- selective attention. Selective attention describes our ability to focus on one piece of sensory stimuli above others.What do you call the cells that respond to specific edges, lines, angles, and movement? - cones - ganglion cells - feature detectors - rods - bipolar cells- feature detectors Feature detectors are individual neurons sensitive to edges, lines, and angles.Trying to achieve rewards is to _____________ morality as breaking the law is to___________ morality. - postconventional; conventional - conventional; preconventional - preconventional; conventional - preconventional; postconventional - conventional; postconventional- preconventional; postconventional Pre-convential morality is based on rewards and punishments while post-conventional morality is based on your own set of ethical principles.Contemporary psychology has evolved from all of the following fields EXCEPT: - philosophy - biology - political science - chemistry - physics- political science Contemporary psychology has evolved from the earliest studies in philosophy and science with an emphasis on biology, chemistry, and physics.Jason is sleeping so deeply that all of his muscles are relaxed to the point of being paralyzed. It is very difficult to wake him up. Which of the following describes the sleep state he is in? - dissociation - paradoxical - hypnosis - delta - REM rebound- paradoxical Paradoxical sleep is characterized by lack of muscle tone and rapid eye movement.