24 terms

Mixtures Quiz

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element
cannot be separated into a simpler substance by a physical or chemical change
compound
chemically combining two or more elements and making something new
mixture
two or more substances that are physically combined
each substance keeps its own properties
homogeneous mixtures
all of the particles of the mixture are uniformly distributed
looks like one substance not a mixture
particles never separate into layers or settle out
alloys
metals that combined with another substance to make a stronger homogeneous metal mixture
each metal keeps its original properties while contributing to the mixture
Examples of Alloys
Brass- copper +zinc
Solder- tin, silver, copper
Stainless steel- iron,carbon, copper
Bronze- copper+tin
Solution
usually a liquid homogeneous mixture where the particles are evenly distributed
Particles are so small that they don't settle out
shine a beam of light through a solution and light is not scattered
Solubility
the ability to dissolve a substance (called a solute) in a solvent at a specific temperature
solute
the substance that is being dissolved
solvent
the substance in which the solute is being dissolved or the substance doing the dissolving
dissolving
the process of evenly spreading particles of a substance throughout a mixture to create a solution
concentration
the measure of how much "stuff" (solute) you dissolved in a solvent
Described as...
dilute- weak (less solute) pink
concentrated- strong (more solute) dark red
Heterogeneous mixture
particles are not well mixed because the particles of a heterogeneous mixture are bigger than those of a homogeneous mixture
looks like its made up of more than one substance
particles do settle to bottom of container if allowed to stand
simple mixtures
made of large easy to see particles
Suspension
particles are almost evenly distributed but eventually settle out
examples- any bottle that states "SHAKE WELL BEFORE USE" like orange juice
shine a beam of light through suspension and light scatters
separating mixtures
since mixtures are physical changes, they can be separated into the individual components that make them up
separating requires you to find one property of matter that is different between all components of a mixture and use a technique to separate the mixture based on that property
Distillation
separating a mixture using the difference in boiling point between two or more substances
Boil substance A, Vapor substance A rises, Vapor of Substance A condenses on a cool surface, Gravity causes it to drip into a container , once all of substance A is boiled away, Substance B remains in the container all by itself
Desalination
separating salt water into salt and water using the process of distillation
once all of the water is boiled away, only salt remains in the pot
Centrifuge
separating a mixture based on density
spinning a mixture very fast in a circular motion so that the substance forms layers by density
Decanting
separating a mixture based on density
letting a substance settle and form layers then pouring off one substance
works best when one layer is a solid
Siphon
separating a mixture based on density
skimming a layer of liquid off of the top
liquid-liquid extraction using a separatory funnel
a mixture forms layer based on their density
then draining off one layer at a time by using a hole in the bottom of the container to release the substance by gravity
Filter
separating a mixture based on particle size
filters prevent larger particles from passing through tiny holes in the filter
Magnet
use magnetism or magnetic force to separate a mixture
a magnet will draw iron or other ferrous metals out of a mixture
substances that are not attracted to the magnet are left behind
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