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anatomical position

the subject stands:
erect facing the observer with the head level
the eyes facing forward
feet flat on the floor directed forward
arms at their sides
palms forward

sagittal plane

slice going through from front to back dividing body into R and L, but not down the midline. (z axis in geometry)

frontal plane (coronal)

slice going through from ear to ear; in geometry the y axis. Separated body into front and back

transverse (axial) plane

slice from belly button to back (spans from left to right) Separates body into top and bottom in geometry the x axis


narrowing the angle of the joint/making the angle of the joint straighter or wider


palms up (think you can hold soup)/palm down (think you CAN'T hold soup)


to move away from midline/to move towards the midline


adduction of the foot, moving upwards/abduction of the foot, moving downwards



pleural membrane

serous membranes that covers the lungs (visceral pleura) and the walls of the pleural cavity (parietal pleura)

pericardial membrane

serous membrane that covers the heart (visceral pericardium) and the pericardial cavity walls (parietal pericardium)

peritoneal membrane

serous membrane that covers the abdominal organs (visceral peritoneum) and the abdominal cavity walls (parietal peritoneum)

tight junctions

intracellular junctions found where a leakproof seal is needed between cells, i.e. in the stomach and bladder.

adherens junctions

intracellular junction that make an adhesion belt (from glycoprotein cadherin) that keeps tissues from separating as they stretch and contract. Ex; epithelial cells


intracellular junctions that act as "spot welds". They also use cadherin glycoprotein (plus intermediate filaments) to hook into the cytoplasm of other cells and CONNECT CYTOSKELTONS


intracellular junctions that are "half-welds" that join cells to the basement membrane. ex: keratinocytes in the epidermis of skin

gap junctions

are pores (connexons) that allow small substances like ions to pass between cells. If one of the cells gets sick or dies, these seal like a hatch to prevent damage to other cells. ex: Alveoli gas diffusion

epithelial tissue

covers body surfaces, forms glands, line hollow organs, body cavities, ducts. Avascular and develops from all 3 germ layers. Free apical surface and attached basal surface.

connective tissue

protects supports and binds organs. this includes fat, RBCs, WBCs, platelets. derived from mesoderm

muscular tissue

generate the physical force needed to make body structures move. They also generate heat used by the body. derived from mesoderm

nervous tissue

detect changes in the body and respond by generating nerve impulses. develops from ectoderm

tissues develop from ___ primary germ layers. which are......

Endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm

squamous epithelium

flat, wide, pavingstone cells

cuboidal epithelium

cells as tall as they are wide

columnar epithelium

cells taller than they are wide

simple epithelium

One layer. All cells in contact with basement membrane. Useful for: Diffusion, Osmosis, Filtration, Secretion, Absorption

pseudostratified epithelium

Appears to have layers, but in reality all cells go from the apex to the base. May contain cilia or goblet cells.

stratified epithelium

Two or more layers. Only basal layer in contact with basement membrane. Protect underlying tissues in locations where there is wear and tear.

simple squamous

makes up epithelial membranes and lines the blood vessels. Thin layer allows rapid passage of substances thru them (Filtration, Diffusion) as in alveoli of lungs or capillary beds. Also involved in secretion (serous membranes)

simple columnar

is common in the digestive tract, function in secretion/absorption. forms a single layer of column-like cells, ± cilia, ± microvilli, ± mucous (goblet cells)

pseudostratified ciliated columnar

is characteristic of the upper respiratory tract. May contain goblet cells


found in the bladder, cells can change shape

simple cuboidal

lines ducts and sweat glands. It is often found lining the tubules of the kidneys and many glands
Important in secretion and absorption

stratified squamous epithelium

has apical surface made of squamous cells. The other layers have different shapes, but the name is based on the apical layer
The many layers are ideal for protection against strong friction forces
May be keratinized (skin) or non-keratinized (mucosa)

stratified cuboidal epithelium

has an apical surface made up of two or more layers of cube-shaped cells.
Locations include the sweat glands and part of the ♂ urethra


is a specialized simple squamous epithelium that lines the entire circulatory system from the heart to the smallest capillary - it is extremely important in reducing turbulence of flow of blood and decreasing surface tension.


is found in serous membranes such as the pericardium, pleura, and peritoneum

endocrine glands/exocrine glands

glands that secrete their contents directly into the blood/glands that secrete their contents into a lumen or duct. Ex: mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, and digestive enzymes.

Define merocrine gland

most common type of secretion (salivary glands, pancreas). the gland releases its product by exocytosis and no part of gland is lost or damaged

Define apocrine gland

glands 'bud' off their secretions through the plasma membrane through vesicles (milk fats)

Define holocrine gland

secreted by rupture of plasma membrane, releasing cell contents into lumen and killing cell itself (sebum)

Connective tissue characteristics x3

Contains collagen fibers and ground substance, highly vascular and supplied with many nerves (exception is cartilage and tendons), most abundant and widely distributed tissue in body.

Define Extracellular Matrix (ECM)

non-cellular material around cells, consists of protein fibers and ground substance

What consistency can ground substance take on?

fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified

What type of slices does a CT scan use?

Transverse (axial) sections

Medial plane

Cuts that separates the body into EQUAL R and L sides.

Oblique plane

Angled cut

Supine vs Prone

belly up vs belly down when lying on a table

External vs Internal rotation

External is lateral rotation, Internal is medial rotation

What are the regional names of the head, eye, neck, elbow, hand, knee, chest, and groin?

Cephalic/Cranial, Orbital/Ocular, cervical, cubital, carpal, patellar, thoracic, inguinal

4 body cavities

1) Cranial- brain and meninges
2) Vertebral- vertebrae and spine
3) Thorax- chest contains potential space. Pleural x2, pericardial, and mediastinum
4) Abdominopelvic- Abdomen and peic

Pericardial cavity

surrounds the heart


between pleural cavities. Runs from sternum to vertebral column and first rib to diaphragm. Contains heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus and serveral large blood vessells

Pleural cavity

Two cavities on either side of heart. Each contains a lung

ASIS stands for?

Anterior superior iliac spine

How are tissues formed?

By grouping cells together using a variety of Intercellular Junctions

What do Intracelular Junctions do?

Intracellular Junctions connect adjacent cells mechanically at the cell membranes or through cytoskeletal elements within and between cells

How many types of Junctions are there?


What are the 4 basic tissue types?

1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscular
4) Nervous

Which tissues develope from the Ectoderm, Endoderm, & Mesoderm?

Ecto- Nervous tissue and Outer Epithelium
Endo- Epithelium (GI, Lungs, and Bladder)
Meso- Muscle and CT and Epithelium

What is the time-frame for embryology?

from conception to 8 weeks gestation

What are the 3 shapes of epithelial cells?

1) Squamous- flat and wide
2) Cuboidal- thick and short
3) Columnar- long

What are the 3 types of arrangement for epithelial cells

1) simple- 1 cell deep (good for diffusion)
2) Stratified- multiple cells deep for protection
3) Pseudostratified- 1 cell deep, but looks layered due to varying nucleus heights.

What is Basement membrane? What is it made up of?

Basement membrane is a thin sheet of fibers that underlies the epithelium
1) Basal lamina
2) Reticular lamina

What tissue types secrete the basal and reticular laminas?

basal= epithelium
reticuar= CT

What are the 3 types of Pseudostratified epithelium?

1) Goblet- secrete mucus
2) Cilia- tiny hairs to move foreign bodies
3) Villi- increase surface area

What types are cell arrangement are the following made up of? Epithelium, Blood vessels, Digestive, lungs, bladder, ducts & sweat glands.

Epithelium & Blood vessels- simple squamous
GI- columnar for secretion/absorptio
Lungs- pseudostratified coumnar w/goblet cell or cilia
Bladder- transitional
Glands/ducts- cuboidal

What are goblet cells?

They are simple columnar cells that have developed the ability to secrete mucus.

What are microvilli?

They are cytoplasmic projections of the simple columnar cell's apical surface that increases surface area for absorption.

Endothelium and Mesothelium are both derived from which layer of embyonic tissue?

The middle= mesoderm

They 2 types of epithelial glands are?

1) Exocrine
2) Endocrine

The two criteria for categorizing multicellular glands?

1) Shape: tubular, acinar (round), tubuloacinar
2) Branched or unbranched

Function of CT?

Bind tissues together
Support and strengthen tissue
Protect and insulate internal organs
Compartmentalize and transport
Energy reserves
Immune responses

The main protein of CT?


What do all types of CT have in common?

Sparse cells & Surrounded by an extracellular matrix

What cells make up CT/

Fibroblasts (most common)
Chondrocytes make the various cartilaginous C.T.
Adipocytes store triglycerides.
Osteocytes make bone.
White blood cells are part of the blood.

What are Fibroblasts?

The most numerous cell in CT. Secrete protein fibers (collagen, elastin, & reticular fibers) and a "ground substance" which varies from one C.T. to another.

5 types of WBCs?

1)Macrophages are the "big eaters" that swallow and destroy invaders or debris. They can be fixed or wandering.
2)Neutrophils are also macrophages ("small eaters") that are numerous in the blood.
3&4)Mast cells and Eosinophils play an important role in inflammation.
5)Lymphocytes secrete antibody proteins and attack invaders.

3 Fiber secreted by CT are?

Collagen fibers
Elastin fibers
Reticular fibers

What are the 2 classifications of CT?

1) Embryonic: mesenchyme & mucous
2) Mature: Loose, Dense, Cartilage, Bone, or Liquid

What are mesenchyme and mucous CT?

Mesenchyme gives rise to all other connective tissues

Mucous C.T. (Wharton's Jelly) is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord and is a rich source of stem cells

3 types of loose CT

1) Areolar Connective Tissue: most widely distributed in the body. Contains all 3 fiber types. STRUCTURE- It is used to attach skin and underlying tissues, and as a packing between glands, muscles, and nerves.
2) Adipose tissue:
It reduces heat loss and serves as padding and as an energy source.
3) Reticular connective tissue: is a network of interlacing reticular fibers and cells.
Makes a Scaffolding used by cells of lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and lymph nodes.

3 Types of dense CT?

1) Dense Irregular Connective Tissue: consists predominantly of fibroblasts and collagen fibers randomly arranged. STRENGTH when forces are pulling from many different directions.
2) Dense regular Connective Tissue: tendons, ligaments, and other strong attachments where the need for STRENGTH along one axis is mandatory (muscle pulling on a bone)
3) Elastic Connective Tissue: fibroblasts and freely branching elastic fibers. It allows STRETCHING of certain tissues like elastic arteries (ex: aorta)

What are the 3 types of Cartilage?

1) Hyaline- smooth surface for joint movement between 2 bones
2) Fibrocartilage- tough and strong (intervertebral spaces and meniscus)
3) Elastic- consists of chondrocytes, malleable (ears, nose, epigottis)

What is Bone?

Bone is a connective tissue with a calcified intracellular matrix.

What are the 2 types of Liquid CT?

Blood and Lymph: atypical liquid connective tissues. Blood has many cells as well as fibers (such as fibrin that makes blood clot).


CT cell that make the cartilaginous CT


CT cell that stores triglycerides


CT cell that makes bone


big eaters who swallow and destroy invaders or debris, can be fixed or wandering


also macrophages 'small eaters' that are in the blood

mast cells and eosinophils

play an important role in inflammation

What are lymphocytes?

secrete antibody proteins and attack invaders

What is areolar connective tissue?

a loose connective tissue that is widely distributed in the body- used to attach skin and underlying tissues and in between glands, muscles and nerves. has all 3 fiber types

What is adipose tissue?

loose connective tissue that is in the subcutaneous layer deep to the skin and around organs and joints. It functions to reduce heat loss, serve as padding and be an energy source

What is reticular CT?

network of interlacing reticular fibers and cells, forms a scaffolding used by lymphoid tissues

What is dense irregular CT?

mostly fibroblasts and collagen fibers in random arrangement, provides strength when forces are pulling from many different directions

What is dense regular CT?

found in tendons, ligaments, other strong attachments where the need for strength is along one axis

What is elastic CT?

mostly fibroblasts and freely branching elastic fibers, allows stretching of tissue (i.e. in elastic arteries like the aorta)


tissue with poor blood supply that grows slowly and is slow to repair if injured

What is hyaline cartilage?

most abundant provides a smooth surface for joing movment and covers ends of long bones, parts of ribs, nose, trachea, bronchi and larynx

What is fibrocartilage?

thick bundles of collagen fibers, is very strong and tough. makes up intervertebral discs and knee joints

What is elastic cartilage?

made of condrocytes in a threadline network of elastic fibers, found in the malleable part of the external ear and the epiglottis

Define bone

connective tissue with calcified intracellular matrix, at times chondrocytes of cartilage are able to turn into osteocytes that make up this structure

What type of CT are blood and lymph?

atypical liquid CT

Define organ

having 2 types of tissue present, although most contain all 4 types of tissue

Define epithelial membrane

simplest organ in the body: epithelium and little bit of CT (mucous, serous, cutaneous)

Define mucous membrane

line interior surfaces that are open to the outside (digestive tract, respiratory tract, reproductive tract)

Define serous membranes

line internal surfaces (parietal layer next to body wall, serous fluid between layers, visceral layer next to organ)

Define synovial membranes

enclose certain joints and are made of CT ONLY

What is the Integumentary System?

A cutaneous membrane that covers outer surface of the body.
Largest organ by surface area and weight.

Functions of skin/integument x6

it protects, regulates body temp, allows sensory perception, synthesis of vitamin D, emotional expression, reservoir of blood.

What are the 3 layers of the Integumentary System?

1) Epidermis
2) Dermis
3) Subcutaneous

Define epidermis

outermost of the 3 layers of skin, consists of epithelial tissue, composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, functions to resist damage and offers protection to underlying tissues

Define dermis

middle of the 3 layers of skin, consists of CT, is thicker than othe layers, provides temperature stability and prevents dehydration

Define subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

innermost of 3 skin layers, loose areolar/adipose CT that attaches skin to underlying tissues and organs, contains pacinian corpuscles that detect external pressure applied to skin, also has blood vessels and nerves in transit to upper layers of skin. functions to insulate and store fat and serve as anchor for skin

Define Langer lines. What are they determined by and what happens is you cut perpendiculat to them?

aka tension lines-> patterns we should follow when making incisions into the skin to ensure there is no gaping when sutured back together (hint to remember: story about the circle cut in the forehead)
-They correspond to the natural orientation of collagen fibers in the dermis and epidermis.
-If you cut perpendicular to them you will leave a gap.

The epidermis is made up of what type of epithelium and what 4 cells?

-Stratified squamous epithelium
-keratinocytes, melanocytes, langerhans cells, & merkel cells

Define keratinocytes

make up 90% of cells in epidermis, produce keratin, and a water repellant sealant. Found in all layers of Epithelium.

Define melanocytes

provide pigment melanin, found in stratum basale

Define langerhans cells

macrophages that originated in red bone marrow, involved in immune response

Define merkel cells

function in the sensation of touch along with other adjacent tactile discs/receptors. Found in Stratum basale.

The epidermis is composed of ___ layers in thin skin and ___ layers in thick skin. What are the layers?

4, 5
From base to surface: Stratum Basale-->Stratum Spinosum-->Stratum Granulosum--> Stratum Lucidum (only in thick skin like on heels)-->Stratum Corneum

What is the stratum basale?

bottom deepest layer of epidermis, continuous cell division occurs here and this layer produces all other layers of epidermis. Contains Melanocytes

What is the stratum spinosum?

layer of 8-10 keratinocytes, sits above stratum basale

What is the stratum granulosum?

3rd layer of epidermis contains non-dividing cells and granules of keratin

What is the stratum lucidium?

layer of epidermis between granulosum and corneum in thick skin of the fingertips, palms and soles

What is the stratum corneum?

outermost layer of epidermis, composed of 20 layers of flat cell-remnants (dead keratinocytes filled with keratin protein) these layers are continuously shed and replaced

What is keratinization?

process of replacing viable cells in the stratum basale with waxy keratin protein as cells move from deepest layer to surface layer

Define thin (hairy) skin

covers all regions of body except palms, palmar surfaces of digits and soles

Define thick (hairless) skin

covers palms, palmar surfaces of digits and soles

What is Melanin? Types x2

produced by melanocytes: eumelanin (brown to black) & pheomelanin (yellow to red)

What are Freckles?

Freckles are clusters of concentrated melanin triggered by exposure to sunlight

Define albinism

congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in skin, hair or eyes due to defect of an enzyme involved in producing melanin

Define vitiligo

chronic disorder that causes depigmentation patches in the skin, unknown cause (proposed combo of genetic factors and autoimmune disease)

What is the papillary region of dermis?

just below epidermis consists of areolar CT, dermal papillae, corpuscules of touch, free nerve endings

What is the reticular region of dermis?

sits above subQ. consists of dense irregular CT, adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, sudoriferous (sweat) glands. tears in this region cause stretch marks (striae)

What are epidermal ridges?

reflect contours of underlying dermal papillae and form basis for fingerprints (function to increase firmness of grip by increasing friction)

What are the superficial sensory receptors in skin?

1) Merkel cells (stratum basale)
2) Free nerve endings
3) Meissner corpuscles (in dermis at border of epidermis)
4) Hair root plexuses

What are the deep sensory receptors in skin?

Pacinian corpuscles-used for sensitivity to vibration and pressure. Located in Dermis right above hypodermal region.

What is hair? (composition, function, components)

-made of dead keratinized epidermal cells, -functions in touch sensation and protection (sun exposure/heatloss)
-3 parts: shaft, follicle, root (epithelial and dermal root sheath)

What is lanugo?

fine non-pigmented downy hairs that cover the body of the fetus

What are vellus hairs?

short, fine, pale hairs barely visible to the naked eye

What are terminal hairs?

long, coarse, heavily pigmented hairs

What are sebaceous (oil) glands?

connected to hair follicles, secrete sebum.

What are eccrine sweat glands?

most numerous of the sudoriferous, secrete a watery solution that helps to cool the body and eliminates small amounts of waste. sweat in response to an emotional stressor and is responsible for thermoregulation

What are apocrine sweat glands?

located mainly in the skin f the axilla, groin, areolae, and bearded facial regions (in adult males). secrete a slightly viscous sweat. responsible for body odor, active during emotional sweating, sexual activity, NOT responsible for thermoregulation.

What are ceruminous glands?

modified sweat glands in the ear canal

What are nails?

composed of hard, keratinized epidermal cells. located over the dorsal surfaces of the ends of fingers and toes

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