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Biochemistry

(Sec 2)
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Carbohydrates
are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
Monosaccharide
a monomer of a carbohydrate-simple sugar-contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio of 1-2-1
Disaccharide
A double sugar formed when two monosaccharides combine in a condensation reaction
Polysaccharides
is a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
Proteins
are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Amino acids
the linkage of monomers
Peptide Bond
when two amino acids form a convalent bond
Polypetides
long chains of amino acids
Enzymes
RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
Substrate
a reactant being catalyzed
Active Site
a folded enzyme; shape allows the substrate to fit into the active site
Lipids
are large non-polar molecules (Don't dissolve in water)
Fatty acids
are unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
Phospholipids
have two, rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol
Wax
is a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
Steroid
molecules composed of four fused Carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them
Nucleic Acids
are very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
DNA
contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
RNA
stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
Nucleotide
is made up of three main componets: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
organic compounds
are made up primarily of carbon atoms
functional groups
clusters of atoms
monomers
carbon compounds that are built from smaller, simpler, molecules
condensation reaction
a chemical reaction where monomers link to form polymers
hydrolysis reaction
a process in which complex molecules such as polymers, are broken down.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a type of compound that stores a large amount of energy in their overall structure
What are the four organic compounds?
lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and proteins
starch
thousands of glucose molecules linked together
glucose and glucose bonded together
a dissacharide, and maltose
What is glucose and frutose bonded together?
table sugar (glucose)
galactose and galactose bonded together
lactose (milk, dairy products)
animal starch
glycogen
plant starch
cellulose
What do you add to break down glucose?
water (hydrolysis reaction)
breaks down starch to get energy
the mitochondria
What are the two purposes of a lipid?
insulation, and reserving energy
functional group in a lipid
aldehyde
isomer
the same molecular formula but a different structural formula (ex. gluctose, frutose)
saturated fat
where all carbon atoms are linked through a single bond in a lipid
unsaturated fat
where some carbon atoms are linked through double bonds
fats
triglycerides
phospholipids make up
the cell membrane
phospholipids consist of
A hydrophobic end and a hydrophyllic end
examples of steroids
tesostrone, estrogen, cholestrol
What do proteins do?
build and repair tissues
What are the physical characteristics of a protein?
they are very large and consist of C, H, N, O, and sometimes S and sometimes P
How do amino acids bond?
through a condensation reaction
another name for a protein
a polypeptide
fibers
long stretched out chains of amino acids
globular protein
linked chain, then it folds onto itself
What are some characteristics of enzymes?
very large proteins, can be used over and over again, lowers activation energy, enzymes are specific,
coenzyme
helps enzyme
inhibitors
can block substrates or active site
What differs between RNA and DNA?
DNA consists of deoxyribose and has 2 strands. RNA consists of ribose