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(Sec 2)


are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom


a monomer of a carbohydrate-simple sugar-contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in a ratio of 1-2-1


A double sugar formed when two monosaccharides combine in a condensation reaction


is a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides


are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

Amino acids

the linkage of monomers

Peptide Bond

when two amino acids form a convalent bond


long chains of amino acids


RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts


a reactant being catalyzed

Active Site

a folded enzyme; shape allows the substrate to fit into the active site


are large non-polar molecules (Don't dissolve in water)

Fatty acids

are unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids


have two, rather than three fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol


is a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain


molecules composed of four fused Carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them

Nucleic Acids

are very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell


contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities


stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins


is made up of three main componets: a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base

organic compounds

are made up primarily of carbon atoms

functional groups

clusters of atoms


carbon compounds that are built from smaller, simpler, molecules

condensation reaction

a chemical reaction where monomers link to form polymers

hydrolysis reaction

a process in which complex molecules such as polymers, are broken down.

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

a type of compound that stores a large amount of energy in their overall structure

What are the four organic compounds?

lipids, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and proteins


thousands of glucose molecules linked together

glucose and glucose bonded together

a dissacharide, and maltose

What is glucose and frutose bonded together?

table sugar (glucose)

galactose and galactose bonded together

lactose (milk, dairy products)

animal starch


plant starch


What do you add to break down glucose?

water (hydrolysis reaction)

breaks down starch to get energy

the mitochondria

What are the two purposes of a lipid?

insulation, and reserving energy

functional group in a lipid



the same molecular formula but a different structural formula (ex. gluctose, frutose)

saturated fat

where all carbon atoms are linked through a single bond in a lipid

unsaturated fat

where some carbon atoms are linked through double bonds



phospholipids make up

the cell membrane

phospholipids consist of

A hydrophobic end and a hydrophyllic end

examples of steroids

tesostrone, estrogen, cholestrol

What do proteins do?

build and repair tissues

What are the physical characteristics of a protein?

they are very large and consist of C, H, N, O, and sometimes S and sometimes P

How do amino acids bond?

through a condensation reaction

another name for a protein

a polypeptide


long stretched out chains of amino acids

globular protein

linked chain, then it folds onto itself

What are some characteristics of enzymes?

very large proteins, can be used over and over again, lowers activation energy, enzymes are specific,


helps enzyme


can block substrates or active site

What differs between RNA and DNA?

DNA consists of deoxyribose and has 2 strands. RNA consists of ribose

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