For fluent speakers of a language, rules of the language such as how to create new words are often
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 50
Terms in this set (50)
Top-down processing helps with speech segmentation so that we hear breaks between the words even if they aren't there (and we sometimes fail to hear breaks that are there). This allows us to break speech into words. Top-down processing also allows us to fill in gaps in speech based on expectations and prior knowledge. We also use knowledge of syntax and phase structure to parse sentences in real-time. That can lead us astray when knowledge or expectations don't match what is being said. Garden path sentences are the best example of this. Because we parse sentences in real-time, we can be led down the wrong path and parse the phrase incorrectly initially. We can also make incorrect assumptions about what to fill in or we may segment incorrectly.
Broca's = Broken Speech. They fully understand language and speech, but cannot produce speech. They will have a lot of pauses in their speech and will often only be able to get out individual words without full grammar. Wernicke's = Word Salad. They speak fluently but it's all nonsense. They can understand a question asked to them, but their response is a bunch of grammatically correct nonsense.
Compared to long-term storage of other types of information, long-term storage of visual informationseems to follow the same set of rules.Group 1 is instructed to imagine a cat, and then asked several yes/no questions about their image. Group 2 is instructed simply to think about cats, with no mention of imagery, and then asked the same yes/no questions. To which of the following questions would you expect participants in Group 1 to respond more quickly than participants in Group 2?Does the cat have a head?In a memory experiment, participants were shown a form that could be interpreted in more than one way. Half the participants were told, "Here is a picture of the sun." The other participants were told, "Here is a picture of a ship's steering wheel." Sometime later, participants were asked to draw the exact visual form they had seen earlier. The data indicate thatparticipants' drawings were biased in a fashion that reflected the labels they had been given earlier.In memorizing new material, the pattern of "dual coding" refers tosteps that lead to both a verbal memory and a visual memory.Describe two different types of experimental techniques that psychologists have used to study visual imagery. Include a brief description of each task and the basic findings. Do either or both of these techniques rely on self-report? Describe the strengths and weaknesses of relying on self-report to study visual imagery.Describe two different types of experimental techniques that psychologists have used to study visual imagery. Include a brief description of each task and the basic findings. Do either or both of these techniques rely on self-report? Describe the strengths and weaknesses of relying on self-report to study visual imagery.Homer, Lisa, and Moe are asked to remember pairs of words. Homer tries to accomplish this task by rehearsing the words over and over again. Lisa decides to create a narrative combining the words. Finally, Moe decides to imagine the objects interacting in some way. Who is likely to have the WORST memory for the words?HomerWhen asked to determine which city is farther south, Seattle or Montreal, people are likely to mistakenly say "Seattle." This is probably becausesome spatial information is stored in memory in a propositional or symbolic form rather than an image formLong-term memory (LTM) contains images that can include verbal labels and/or visual representations. Compare and contrast the effects that these two sources of information have on memory by answering the following questions: a. What sort of memory errors would you expect when verbal labels are stored? Visual representations? b. Why would it be beneficial to have both forms of information in LTM?Verbal labels can distort visual memories, like misjudging geographic locations or making the image more like a verbal label than it was. Visual representations can make some information harder to access (e.g., answering whether or not a cat has claws would be slower with a visual representation vs. verbal/propositional because it requires zooming in). Visual representations can be more effortful. It's beneficial to have both thanks to dual-coding theory. Having visual and verbal provides more retrieval cues/paths and improves learning and memory. Additionally, using imagery can improve memory (e.g., mnemonics).Studies of mental rotation indicate thatthe greater the degree of rotation required, the more time is needed to imagine the rotation.Which of following statements is true about memory for pictures?Picture memory shows primacy and recency effects.Maritza believes that clowns are evil. She meets two men who are very nice and then learns that they are clowns. Despite this, she does not adjust her belief and continues to think clowns are evil. This is calledbelief perseverance.Tonya is trying to decide which candidate to vote for in the upcoming election. The two candidates have similar positions, and Tonya is having a hard time choosing between them. She decides, therefore, simply to vote for the one who looks more like her idea of a "natural leader." It seems that Tonya is using __________ to make her decision.he representativeness heuristicCompare and contrast Type 1 and Type 2 reasoning. Include in your discussion the benefits and drawbacks to each system, the instances in which each system would be used, and how changing the data format can lead to changes in use.Type 1 reasoning is automatic, fast/automatic, and relies on heuristics meaning it makes more errors. It is used in everyday decisions. Type 2 is slower, requires more effort/conscious, and is more likely to be correct (though not guaranteed to be correct). Type 2 is used for complex decisions. Emphasizing frequency (e.g., 10 out of 100) over proportions/percentages will make Type 2 use more likely. Also, emphasizing the randomness of an event/decision etc. can increase Type 2 use.In a new version of the Wason four-card task, participants are given the rule, "If you read the textbook, then you will get an A on the exam." Each card has a YES or NO on one side, indicating whether or not the student has read the textbook, and an exam grade on the other side. Compared with the original version of the task with just numbers and letters, participants should makemore accurate decisions about which cards to flip over in the new version because the new content makes the problem more concrete and relatable to everyday life.On Wednesday, the local weather channel forecast a 25% chance of rain, so Lisa took her umbrella to work. On Friday, the same station reported a 75% chance of no rain, so Lisa left her umbrella at home. The difference in Lisa's behavior between Wednesday and Friday illustrates the effect offraming.When selecting a course of action framed in terms of either losing lives or saving lives following an epidemic of a serious disease, people typically choosethe riskier option for lost lives and the less risky option for saved lives.Studies indicate that training in statisticsimproves participants' performance in a variety of judgment problems.Many of us overestimate our own popularity. This could be because we surround ourselves with people who like us, rather than with people who do not. Therefore, it is easier for us to think of the names of people who like us than it is to think of the names of our enemies. This overestimation of popularity seems to derive from usingthe availability heuristicWhich of the following statements is NOT an example of confirmation bias in action?Mary and her friends all agreed with a recent article about who "won" a recent political debate, but later Mary also thought that an article with the opposing view made some good points.Molly is a member of the Forest Political Party, and she is certain that every member of the Mountains Political Party is evil and trying to ruin the country. Discuss how tendencies like confirmation bias and belief perseverance contribute to her beliefs and her evaluation of new evidence about the parties.Molly may engage in a number of behaviors consistent with confirmation bias like: - Take information that confirms beliefs at face value while scrutinizing disconfirming evidence more - Only seek info that confirms beliefs - Better memory for confirming events/information, distorted memory for inconsistent information - Fail to consider alternative hypotheses She may also engage in belief perseverance by not adjusting her belief following disconfirming evidenceImagine a very creative person. Based on the discussion in the textbook, describe the likely personality traits of this person. In which ways is this person likely to think differently from a less creative person? Conversely, what are some ways in which they are likely to think similarly (or be similarly affected by various factors) compared to a less creative person?creative people have: - Knowledge/expertise - Intrinsic motivation (need to know the answer or solve the problem, etc.) - A persistent personality that handles failure well - The right environment (right place at the right time); need opportunities to develop creativity. - More likely to look at the deep structure of a problem instead of surface features. Look for meaning compared to less creative/less knowledgeable people. Both creative and less creative will use the same heuristics and have the same biases.Bob works in marketing and wants to be creative in his work. Which of these is LEAST likely to be a prerequisite for his creativitybeing strongly motivated by rewards at work (e.g., a promotion) rather than taking pleasure in his workResearchers have tried to study the moment of illumination in the laboratory. The evidence indicates thatwhen participants report an illumination, they are at least as likely to be moving toward a dead end as they are to be moving toward the problem's solution.__________ is an ability to think about concepts/ideas in a new way. __________ is an ability to see ways in which seemingly different concepts/ideas might be related.Divergent thinking; Convergent thinkingHolly was in her mother's kitchen preparing soup for the family, but she couldn't find a ladle and so she couldn't serve the soup. Her mother later explained that the ladle had been broken and told Holly to use the coffee mug that was sitting on the counter to "spoon" the soup into the bowls instead. Holly failed to solve the soup problem on her own because shewas experiencing functional fixedness.Participants' use of hill climbing is evident in thatproblem solving often gets stalled if a problem requires participants to move briefly away from the goal state in order to (ultimately) reach the goal.In many studies, participants fail to use analogies as an aid to problem solving. Of the following, which is the most plausible explanation for this?Participants search their memories based on the surface structure of the problem and thus fail to think of many useful analogies.Describe two of the strategies for problem solving that were detailed in the chapter. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of each approach.Hill climbing strategy - Always work in direction of goal. Only works for simple problems, a lot of problems require going backward to get to goal Means-end analysis - Compare current state to goal state and ask what means you have to get to goal state; effective strategy, breaks things down into sub goals Problem space/search problem space - for simple problems, can map out the possible outcomes/choices and search for the optimal one; only works for simple problems, some problems have massive problem spaces (e.g., chess) Pictures and/or diagrams - use imagery or diagrams to see the problem solution; helpful for problems that can utilize visualization Analogy use - Apply a prior problem solution to the current problem, common in experts; useful but don't naturally do so without instructions Setting sub-goals - Break problem down and set sub-goals (good idea in chess); good strategy overallA group of participants is interrupted while working on a problem. The participants then spend some time on an unrelated task before returning to the original problem. Studies of this sort generally show that thedata are mixed, with some studies showing a benefit from the interruption but many studies showing no effect.According to the text, current research indicates that creative problem solvingseems to draw on heuristics and analogies in the same way that ordinary problem solving does.Which of the following is a way in which stereotypes can affect performance?Activating a negative stereotype may lead members of that group to perform worse on tests.Which of the following is evidence for an interaction between genetics and social factors?IQ similarity between monozygotic twins is reduced in impoverished families relative to families of middle to high SES.The P-FIT model proposed by Jung and Haier (2007) suggests thatintelligence depends on the integration of information across multiple regions in the parietal and frontal lobes.What is the difference between the fluid and crystallized types of intelligence? How does each change across the lifetime? What factors influence each type of intelligence?Crystallized intelligence is your acquired knowledge, including things like vocabulary and knowledge of the world (i.e., who is the president). Fluid intelligence is your ability to solve novel problems and/or think abstractly, often noted as g. Crystallized intelligence increases over time. Fluid intelligence increases initially but then declines with age starting in the early to mid 20s. Fluid intelligence is more affected by things like sleep deprivation, drug/alcohol use, and depression.Sam has scored very well on an IQ test. Which of the following is also likely to be true of Sam?Sam will also score well on a test of working memory capacity.Describe the genetic and environmental factors that can influence intelligence. Why is it a mistake to ask, "How much of your intelligence comes from genes, and how much from the environment?"Both the environment and genetics play a key role on the development of intelligence. While a person can have the genetic makeup for high intelligence, if the environment does not support or develop intelligence then that person won't reach their full potential. Things like poverty, abuse, neglect, etc. have a significant negative impact on intelligence. However, if we take children out of poverty or an abusive household we see an increase in intelligence. It's a mistake to ask which has more impact because it's not possible to separate the 2 influences and they are highly interactive.All of the following statements support the notion that the environment influences intelligence scores EXCEPTIQs are more similar among monozygotic twins than among dizygotic twins.Dr. Jean Yuss has created a new test that she claims can measure intelligence with only 15 questions. Dr. Yuss administers this test to Alex three times, and each time Alex scores only 35% on the test. Other tests of intelligence, however, suggest that Alex is quite intelligent. Which of the following is most likely true of this new test?The test may be a reliable measure of intelligence but seems not to be a valid measure.Which of the following is evidence that is most consistent with Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences?Some people with very low IQ scores nevertheless have specific, extreme talents.According to some authors, people who are "street-smart" are likely tobenefit from instruction that is matched to their practical abilities.