Psychology Pre-Test

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Transforming incoming information into a usable/understandable form is called ______________.
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John sits in the back of the classroom and propels spitballs at other students. The teacher notices this and harshly reprimands John. John decreases his spitball propelling behavior. This is an example of:Positive punishmentThis type of therapy focuses on helping people understand their problems and change their thoughts, motives or feelingsInsight therapyThere are some problems that cannot be solved, but we can change the way we think about the problem. What coping method is being used when a person says, "I'm devastated that our home was flooded but at least it is still standing. Some of the houses closer to the river are completely gone."making social comparisonsOur sensory receptors play a key role in detecting ________ in the external world.SimilaritiesMonica is really freaked out by germs. She imagines germs on every surface, washes her hands until they crack and bleed and has bottles of hand sanitizer everywhere - at home, in her office, in her car. It is most likely that she meets the criteria for:Obsessive Compulsive DisorderThe best evidence in support of the idea that hypnosis is actually an altered state of consciousness would bephysiological changes in the brain that were related to the suggestions given.This is an active system that receives information, organizes and alters information as it is being stored away, and then retrieves the information from storage when needed.memoryLiking or having the desire for a relationship with another person is called __________.interpersonal attractionAnimism and egocentrism represent limitations in the preoperational child's thinking in that they indicate an inability to:distinguish among different perspectives.In the ______ theory of motivation, a lack or a deficiency of something creates a state of tension which motivates us to reduce the deficiency.Drive-reductionAccording to ________ theory, basic survival and security needs must be satisfied before one can move on to higher needs such as self-actualization.Maslow'sWhen treating someone with ADHD:Studies have shown that the most effective treatment is a combination of medication and behavioral therapy.A person who is in the _________________, experiences the muscles tense, blood pressure rises, and digestion shuts down.alarm phaseAs the four winners of the grade-school spelling bee posed for a picture, each thought about the day's success. Which child shows an external locus of control?Jillian believes she got lucky.This is an incurable disorder of motor control that involves muscles of the face and head and results from long-term use of anti-psychotic medication:Tardive-dyskinesiaDrew Brees is an excellent NFL quarterback. As such, Drew Brees would be considered a(n):PrototypeMany Jungian archetypes are indirectly measured by the _____, a test that is used by many organizations to match job applicants with appropriate kinds of jobs.Myers-Briggs personality testMotivation is BEST defined as _________.the various factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organismsIndividuals with a severe psychological disorder:display clear symptoms that dominate their livesWhat animal was willing to "jump" in the visual cliff exercise?TurtlesWhen asked about the input from each cerebral hemisphere, two well-known split-brain researchers, Michael Gazzaniga and Roger Sperry, would agree that:in normal brains, the left and right hemispheres cooperate naturally in everyday activities.The iceberg analogy is used to represent Freud's personality structure becauseit shows that most important processes occur beneath the level of consciousness.According to the serial position effect theory, which part of a list is MOST difficult to remember and thus deserve additional practice?middleThis type of insight therapy assumes that psychological problems arise from erroneous thinking and sees rational thinking as the key to positive therapeutic change:Cognitive therapyErnest Hilgard, a pioneer in hypnosis research, argued that:hypnosis involves dissociation in which one part of the mind operates independently of others.Grouping or combining information into larger meaningful units as a way of improving the efficiency of one's short-term memory is called _____________.chunkingWhen considering the computer metaphor with the cognitive perspective of consciousness:conscious state is like the computer screen, while non-conscious processing is the electronic activity at work behind the scenes.The scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others is psychologyConsidering how nature and nurture work together in the development of language,children are able to use their social skills to acquire language in specific contexts.______ is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.AcquisitionThe gas cap on my car is stuck. I need some adhesive to make the gas cap stick. I have gum in my mouth and do not think that gum could be used as an adhesive to temporarily fix my gas cap. This is an example of what construct linked to thinking?Functional fixednessA dog has been conditioned to salivate to a bell of a certain tone. A bell with a slightly different tone is sounded and the dog does not salivate. This is an example of:Stimulus discriminationPatricia is 63 years old and is beginning to lose some of her memory. She becomes confused and does not speak as well as she once did. These are signs that Patricia may be developing:Alzheimer disease.If the Stanford-Binet was renamed for its French-United States authors, the exam would be renamed:Binet-Terman IQ TestWe misjudge the causes of another person's behavior because we overestimate internal, personal factors and underestimate external, situational influences. This is called____________.the fundamental attribution errorLasting images or virtual snapshots that are frozen in memory at times of personal tragedy, personal happiness, or other significant events are called _____________ memories.flashbulbErik Erikson wrote that:eight inevitable crises must be resolved as one moves through life.Bandura's social cognitive theory of personality stresses the observation of adult behaviors as well as the concept of _____ in the development of a child's personality?modelingA weakness of the psychoanalytic theory of dreaming is that:there is no reliable way to determine latent meanings.This schedule of reinforcement initially produces modest rates of responding which rapidly increase immediately preceding the delivery of the reinforcer:Fixed intervalWhich correlational coefficient reflects the strongest relation between two variables?-.20Psychology is the study of:behavior and mental processes.Emotion is BEST defined as __________.physical or psychological responses to the fulfillment or frustration of our goalsWhich is the best statement of the principle of natural selection?Over time, genetic variations become more common if they are adaptive in a particular environment.Psychologists as well as other scientists need to confirm their findings by repeating observations, a process known as ________.replicationWhich of the following is not a major kind of social influence?cognitive dissonanceSandy is a very outgoing person who likes being around other people and socializing with them. According to the Big Five trait theory of personality, Sandy would be consideredhigh on the stable and enduring personality disposition known as extraversion.The Type A behavior that is dangerous to health is:frequent irritability.As Caroline is walking across campus, a car swerves toward her. Her heart races and sweat breaks out as she jumps out of harm's way. This mobilization of energy is due to the action of Caroline's:sympathetic nervous system.Labeling a person as mentally ill:can provoke prejudices and social rejection.