A1. Prepare for data collection
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Terms in this set (71)
o Count: The number of times a behavior occurs
o Frequency (a.k.a. rate): The number of times a behavior occurs over time
O Duration: The amount of time which a behavior occurs
O Response latency: The amount of time between the presentation of the SD and the start of a response
O Inter-response time: The amount of time between responses
A5 enter data and update graphs• Graphs compile all of the data collected within and across sessions • Graphs show the relationship between intervention and the effect on the behaviorintervention= independent variableBehavior=dependent variable O The change in behavior depends on the interventionParts of a graphGraph title: Indicates the behavior and intervention represented in graph o Figure caption: Provides a brief description of what the graph is showingParts of a graphX-axis: measure of time (i.e. minutes, day, week, etc.) o Y-axis: measure of behavior (i.e. frequency, duration, etc.)Point and pathData point: Demonstrates a single point of recorded data Data path: Connects data pointsCondition change linePhase change line: Demonstrates a change in intervention Setting event line: Demonstrates a major change in occasion surrounding the behaviorbehavior observational and measurable termso Anything an organism says or does o Observable and measurable o NOT mentalistic (i.e. emotions) O OBJECTIVE O Must be able to pass the "dead man test" -If a dead man can do it, it's not behaviorenvironment in observable and measurable termso The circumstances in which the behavior/organism exists (i.e. home, school, community, etc.) o All behaviors occur within an environmentPrinciples of BehaviorPunishment: Decreasing the future occurrences of behavior Reinforcement: Increasing the future occurrence of a behavior+ and - reinforcementsPositive reinforcement: When the addition of a stimulus increases the future occurrence of a behavior Negative reinforcement: When the removal of a stimulus increases the future occurrence of a behavior.Positive and negative punishmentPositive punishment: When the addition of stimulus decreases the future occurrence of a behavior Negative punishment: When the removal of a stimulus decreases the future occurrence of a behaviorB1. Conduct Preference AssessmentsPreference assessments help determine items/activities that will motivate a child anytimeB2. Assist with individualized assessment proceduresFamiliarize yourself with assessments being used by the Behavior Analyst (i.e. curriculum-based, developmental, social, etc)Functional Behavior Analysis•FBA Behavior Analyst to determine the function of a behavior through indirect and direct assessmentsIndirect assessments:Parent interviews SurveysDirect assessments:ABC data Functional Analysis Tests a behavior under each condition (sensory, escape, attention, tangible/activity)components of a written skill acquisition planReceptive skills (i.e. following instructions) Expressive skills (i.e. expressive identification) Visual perception (i.e. match-to-sample) Imitation (i.e. motor imitation) Daily Living Skills (i.e. washing hands)Prepare for the session• Read and understand skill acquisition programscontingencies of reinforcemento Unconditioned reinforcer (a.k.a. primary reinforcers): objects or events that are primarily known to be reinforcing (i.e. food, water, etc.) Conditioned reinforcements a item or activity that becomes paired with the learner with and unconditional reinforcement (ie verble praise being praised with food)Fixed Ratio (FR)A behavior is reinforced after set number of correct responses (not including FR1)Fixed Interval (FI): behavior is reinforced after a set amount of timeVariable Ratio (VR)A behavior is reinforced after an average number of correct responsesVariable Interval (VI)A behavior is reinforced after an average amount of timediscrete-trial teaching procedurestests a series of successive teaching trials (over and over again)• How to implement a discrete-trial:1. Sanitize environment 2. Select appropriate reinforcers 3. Obtain learner's attention o 4. Deliver SD in a neutral tone O 5. Allow 3-5 seconds to allow learner to respond 6. If correct response, deliver reinforcement immediately 7. If incorrect response, implement error correction by providing appropriate prompts 8. Make sure run the listed minimum of trials before moving onto a new targetnaturalistic teaching procedures (i.e. incidental teaching)uses the learner's current motivation to contrive learning opportunities • Appropriate prompts and reinforcementTask analyzed chaining procedures [Task Analysis]• Task analysis: Breaking complex skills into smaller, teachable units • Behavior chain: specific sequence of behaviors that lead to reinforcement • Chaining: The methods for linking specific sequences of behaviorForward chaining: Behaviors in the task analysis are taught in their natural order. Each step must be mastered before moving onto the next step.Task ChainingThis is a variation of forward chaining. Every step in the task analysis is taught at the same time.Backward chainingBehaviors in the task analysis are taught to be mastered backwards. The individual is prompted through each step of the task analysis (via errorless teaching), and then is taught to complete the last step. Oncediscrimination trainingteaches a learner to discriminate (differentiate) between/across different stimuliMass Trial (MT)A series of successive teaching trials where the same target is repeatedly tested over and over again. Typically, the target is presented in isolation in order to ensure success for the learner.2. Expanded Trial (Exp. T)A series of successive teaching trials where the learner is learning to discriminate the target response from other stimuli (or distractors). Typically, the distractors will systematically increase.3 steps to discrimination training: STEP 3Random Rotation (RR): A series of successive teaching trials where the target is randomly rotated with other learned targets. Ex. The learner will identify the color "red", then identify the color "green", and then identify the color "blue".C8. Implement stimulus control transfer procedures• Stimulus control (a.k.a. instructional control): The likelihood of a learner responding to a certain stimulusStimulus prompts:Prompts that exaggerate some dimension of an antecedent stimulus (or SD) This exaggeration is meant to help the learner to engage in the correct response. Examples of stimulus prompts: movement (i.e. gesture), positional (i.e. proximity) and redundancy (some feature of the stimulus is exaggerated)Stimulus fading:Transfer of stimulus control from stimulus prompts to a naturally occurring stimulusC9. Implement prompt and prompt fading procedures• Prompt: Any extra stimuli presented before, during or after the SD in order to make the correct response more salient for the learnerC10. Implement generalization and maintenance procedures• Generalization: Skills performed across multiple stimuli, people, and/or environments • Maintenance: Skills are maintained over timeC11. Implement shaping procedures.• process involving systematically and differentially reinforcing successive approximations to a terminal behavior • In other words, reinforce "baby steps" that become closer and closer to the target responseC12. Implement token economy procedures.• A contingency package that includes: 1. Specified list of responses to reinforce 2. Tokens for exhibiting target response 3. Backup reinforcers (primary and secondary reinforcers) that can be purchased with tokensD1. Identify essential components of a written behavior reduction plan• Behavior plans indicate the target behaviors in need of reduction/replacingParts of a behavior plan:1.Operational definition: the topography (how it looks) of the target behavior 2. Onset/offset of target behavior o 3. Baseline measures and anticipated goal of target behavior 4. Replacement goals: 5. Function of target behavior 6. Antecedents: What triggers the behavior? 7. Consequences: What maintains the behavior? 8. Proactive interventions: How to prevent the behavior? 9. Reactive interventions: What to do if the behavior occurs? 10. Measurement proceduresD2. Describe common functions of behavior (S.E.A.T.)Sensory (a.k.a. automatic) Escape Attention Tangible/ActivityD3. Implement interventions based on modifications of antecedents /Discriminative stimulus (SD):The SD is contingency dependent, because a certain behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of this stimulus due to the reinforcement it created in the pastD3. Implement interventions based on modifications of antecedents • Motivating operations (MO):o Two types motivating operations: 1. Establishing operation increases the effectiveness of a reinforcer 2. Abolishing operation decreases the effectiveness of a reinforcer Motivating operations are contingency independent, because they don't rely on the history of pairing a behavior with reinforcementAntecedent Interventions: Noncontingent reinforcement(NCR): Provides reinforcement after a certain amount of time independent of the individuals behaviorAntecedent Interventions: High-probability request(High-P): A method designed to increase the probability that a low probability behavior will occur by presenting stimuli known to promote high probability of respondingAntecedent Interventions: Functional communication training(FCT): A strategy that teaches individuals to functionally and appropriately communicate to compete with challenging behaviorsD4. Implement differential reinforcement procedures (DRO, DRA, DRI)Differential reinforcement transferring reinforcement from one behavior to another • Typically, differential reinforcement is used to remove reinforcement from a maladaptive behavior, and instead, reinforce an appropriate alternative behaviorDifferential reinforcement of other behaviors:(DRO) behaviors: Reinforcing the absence of a behavior within a given time periodDifferential reinforcement of alternative(DRA) behaviors: Reinforcing an alternative behavior and NOT reinforcing the maladaptive behavior Ex. Reinforcing the use of functional communication for access instead of screaming for access.Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors:(DRI) the alternative behavior and the maladaptive behavior can NOT occur at the same time. Ex. A person cannot engage in hitting if they are sitting on their hands.D5. Implement extinction proceduresExtinction: Ignoring: Response block: • Spontaneous recoveryExtinction:The removal or withholding of reinforcement resulting in a drastic decrease of a future behavior. The behavior occurs, but does not access reinforcement.Ignoring:o This is NOT extinction. This is withholding attention, not reinforcement. block:Response block:This is NOT extinction. The behavior never actually occurs during a response block.Extinction burstAn immediate increase in the frequency/intensity of responding when an extinction procedure is initially implemented.Spontaneous recoveryAfter the behavior diminishes from the extinction process, it may temporarily increase in frequency/intensity -This does NOT mean that the behavior has accessed reinforcementD6. Implement crisis/emergency procedure according to protocolTypes of crisis events/emergencies: o Witness to abuse Natural disasters o Critical injuries • What to do if there is a crisis/emergency: o Contact caregiver immediately O Contact supervisor immediately o Call 911 if necessary o Fill-out incident report forms within 24 hours of incident