Socio111 - Chapter 7 - Social Stratification - Terms
From Intro to Sociology by Kendall
Terms in this set (48)
Hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources.
Refers to the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education and health care.
Refers to anything valued in a society, ranging from money and property to medical care and education; they are considered to be scarce because of their unequal distribution among social categories.
Boundaries between levels in hierarchies are more flexible and may be influenced (positively or negatively) by people's achieved statuses.
Refers to the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another.
Refers to the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next.
Refers to the social movement of individual within their own lifetime.
Boundaries between levels in the hierarchies of social stratification are rigid, and people's positions are set by ascribed status.
An extreme form of stratification in which some people are owned by others.
Refers to a system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parent's ascribed characterisitics.
Refers to the seperation of races, which was enforced by the Afrikaners to control the government, police and the military
Refers to the type of stratification based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do.
Social mobility that occurs when people experience a gain or loss in position and/or income that does not produce a change in their place in the class structure.
Social mobility that occured going up or going down the class structure.
Also known as the capitalist class which consist of those who own the means of production.
Also known as the working class which consist of those who must sell their labor to the owner in order to earn enough money to survive.
Refers to the feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from other people and from oneself.
Refers to the struggle between the capitalist class and the working class.
Refers to the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property.
Indentified as privileged commercial class.
Wealthy individuals who live off their investments and do not have to work.
Those who worked for wages and consists of white-collar workers, public officials, managers, and professionals.
Those who worked for wages and consists of skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled workers.
Refers to the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by other. Fame, respect, honor and esteem.
Refers to the ability of people or groups to achive their goals despite opposition from others.
Refers to a combined measure that attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education to determine class location.
Also known as the capitalist class in Weberian Model, It is the wealthiest and most powerful class in the United States.
Member of this class came from prominent families, which posses great wealth that they have held for several generations.
Member of this class may be extremely wealthy but have not attained as much prestige as members of the upper-upper class.
They are often highly educated professionals who have built their careers as physicians, attorneys, stockbrokers, or corporate managers.
The core of this class is made up of semiskilled machine operators who work in factories and elsewheres.
Relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women, such as day-care workers, checkout clerks, cashiers, and waitpersons.
Members of this class live from just above to just below the poverty line; they typically hold unskilled jobs, seasonal migrant jobs in agriculture, lower-paid factory jobs, and service jobs.
People in this class are poor, seldom employed, and caught in long-term deprivation that results from low levels of education and income and high rates of unemployment.
Contemporary Marxian Model
Examine class in terms of people's relationship to others in the production process. It identifiy ownership or nonownership of the means of production as the distinguishing feature of classes.
This class holds most of the wealth and power in society through ownership of capital.
This class have substantial control over the means of production and over workers.
Small Business Class
This class consists of small-business owners and craftspeople who may hire a small number of employees but largely do their own work.
In Marxian model, this class is made up of a number of subgroups, one of which is blue-collar workers, some of whom are highly skilled and well paid and others of whom are unskilled and poorly paid.
Another subgroup of the working class that include electricians, plumbers, and carpenters.
Another subgroup of the working class which is referred to by some as "new middle class", members of this class are secretaries, clerical workers, and sales workers
It is the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers, and ownership of property.
Official Poverty Line
It is based on what is considered to be the minimum amount of money required for living at a subsistence level.
It exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
Exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living.
Feminization of Poverty
Refers to the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
Refers to the reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that leads to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job.
Refers to a hierarchy in which all positions are rewarded based on people's ability and credentials.