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Terms in this set (78)
What is the vertebral formula of the horse?
C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd15
What is the relationship of the cervical vertebrae to the dorsal midline?
- curved path
- gently sloped S curve
What is the poll? ID cranial and caudal oblique muscles in region of the poll
- back of the head where it joins the neck
- obliquus capitis caudalis: btwn C1 and C2
- obliquus capitis cranialis: passes on head and inserts on C1
- rectus capitis muscles: deep to oblique capitis cranialis
Describe anatomy of the equine nuchal ligament
- paired funiculus nuchae (cord)
- paired lamina nuchae (sheet)
What is the relationship of the nuchal lig and suprasinous lig?
nuchal ligament becomes the supraspinous ligament at the withers and continues running down spinous processes of the vertebrae
Where are the nuchal bursae and supraspinous bursae located?
- cranial nuchal: between funiculus nuchae and the arch of the atlas (always there)
- caudal nuchal: at the spine of the axis (C2) (+/- there)
- supraspinous bursa: thoracic region at location of T2/T3 between spinous process and ligament
What clinical conditions involve these bursae?
- cranial nuchal bursa gets poll evil: supporative, inflam exudate goes down toward atlantoaccipital region and affects the nervous sys (serious disease)
- supraspinous bursa gets fistulous withers: supporative draining tract = fistula in terscapular region (high pt T2-T8)
- both infected with brucella abortus
What condition affects the cervical vertebrae causing compression of the spinal cord and ataxia in horses?
- Wobbler's syndrome: misarticulation of the vertebrae and one slips forward to compress the spinal cord
- ataxia and incoordination: inability to perceive where front legs are
Where is the crest? What is the composition of the tis in this area?
- root of the mane
- dorsal aspect of the neck
- also refers to depo of fat under skin (fat pad that varies w/ sex and breed)
ID the topographic pos. of the wing of the atlas
behind the jaw, almost parallel to it
ID mm. in supf. layer of the ventral neck and their generalized func
ID mm. in supf of the lateral neck and their gen. func
ID mm. in deep ventral neck and their gen. func
ID mm in deep lateral neck and their gen. func.
Diagram/ID branches of typical cervical spinal n.
Classify dorsal and ventral spinal nerve roots as sensory or motor structures
Are the dorsal and ventral branches of the spinal nerve sensory, motor, or mixed?
How many pairs of cervical spinal nn. are present in the horse?
Which nn. contribute to the origin of the phrenic n. and brachial plexus?
Which mm. show varying deg of fusion at the cervical region?
What is Viborg's triangle?
- surgical field for access to gutteral pouch for retropharyngeal lymph nodes that are affected with strangles
- parotid salivary gland huge and lies over triangle, reflect to see ln.
Which structures are accessible through an incision in Viborg's triangle?
- gutteral pouch
- retropharyngeal lymph nodes
- parotid salivary glands
What are the borders of the jugular groove?
- dorsal: cleidomastoideus
- ventral: sternocephalicus
- deep: omohyoideus
What is contained within the jugular groove?
What is the anatomic significance of the omohyoideus in the horse?
- deep to external jugular v.
- superficial to the common carotid a.
What is the relationship of the trachea and esophagus through the cervical region?
esophagus starts dorsal to trachea then moves to the L lateral side caudally then back to dorsal as it approaches the thoracic inlet
What are the borders of the lateral pectoral groove?
- dorsal: cleidobrachialis
- ventral: descending pectoral
Which major venous structure and small arterial branch are found in the later pectoral groove?
- continuation of jugular groove
- cephalic v.
- deltoid br. of superficial cervical a.
- important in laceration through lat. pectoral groove in staking injuries
What are the borders of the median pectoral groove?
between descending pectoral mm. on themidline
Which structures are contained in the carotid sheath?
- common carotid a.
- vagosympathetic trunk
- recurrent laryngeal n.
- +/- internal jugular v.
List the vertebral formula for the bovine species
C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd18-20
Which ruminant vertebral formula can have variations and still be considered normal?
Describe the component parts of the ruminant nuchal lig
- funiculus nuchae (paired)
- lamina nuchae: cranial (paired), caudal (single sheet**)
Describe the path and relationhsip of cervical portions of the esophagus and trachea (ruminant)
- esophagus starts dorsal then moves to L lateral side then dorsal again
- trachae: pharynx to T5
- tracheal bronchus comes off about T3 to supply R cranial lobe***
List the structures contained in the carotid sheath of bovine sp (4)
- common carotid a.
- vagosympathetic trunk (VST)
- recurrent laryngeal n.
- internal jugular v. (constant in ruminants)
ID or describe the borders of the ruminant jugular groove
- dorsal: Cleidomastoideus m.
- ventral: Sternomandibularis m. (rum sternocephalicus has 2 parts)
- deep: Sternomastoideus m.
- sheep don't have a sternmandibularis so both the deep and ventral border is sternomastoideus
Describe the thymus and its location in the young and old ruminant animal
- cervical and thoracic portion
- shrinks with age; mostly cervical involutes and some thoracic remains
- 2 yrs for involution in small ruminants
- 6 yrs for bovine involution
Describe the loc of the ruminant thyroid gland
- 1st tracheal ring
- isthmus more well developed than equine sp
List the superficial layer of muscles on the ventral neck (5)
- Cutaneus colli
- Brachiocephalicus: cleidomastoideus / cleidobrachialis
- Sternothyrohyoideus: sternothyroideus / sternohyoideus
List the deep mm. of the ventral neck (4)
- Longus capitis
- Longus colli
List the superficial mm. of the lateral surface of the neck (4)
- Trapezius: trapezius cervicis / trapezius thoracis
- Rhomboideus: rhomboideus cervicis / rhomboideus thoracis
- Serratus ventralis: serratus ventralis cervicis / serratus ventralis thoracis
List the 1st deep layer of the lateral neck mm. (3)
- Semispinalis capitis
- Longissimus capitis et Longissimus atlantis
- Longissimus cervicis
List the 2nd deep layer of the lateral neck (no ID - 3)
- Multifidus cervicis
- Intertransversarii cervicis
- Spinalis system
What are the 3 mm. of the poll?
- Obliquus capitis caudalis
- Obliquus capitis cranialis
- Rectus capitis muscles
Describe the 3 mm. of the poll
- Obliquus capitis caudalis: passes btwn C1 and C2
- Obliquus capitis cranialis: from head and inserts on C1
- Rectus capitis muscles: deep to obliquus capitis cranialis
How many pairs of cervical spinal nerves are there and describe them in general
- segmentally distributed throughout the neck
- come out at each intervertebral foramen
- starting at the back of the atlas?
Describe the accessory nerve
- CN XI
- imbedded in fascia dorsal to omotransversarius
- dorsal branch: motor inn. to brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius and trapezius
- ventral branch: inn. to sternocephalicus (occurs right under wing of the atlas)
Describe the transverse nerve of the neck
- formed by branches of C2 and C3
- sensory n. in between parts of the mandible (mandibular innervation)
Describe the phrenic nerve
- goes into thoracic inlet
- is a spinal n. formed by ventral branches of C5, C6, C7
Describe the brachial plexus
- ventral branches of spinal nerves C6, C7, C8, T1, T2
- emerges through fibers of scalenus m.
- looks like a wad of fat
Describe the cervical branch of the facial nerve
- CN VII
- tiny fiber running with external jugular vein
- inn. cutaneus colli m.
What two arteries supply the neck with blood?
- deep cervical a.
- vertebral a.
Where is the deep cervical a. located?
on lamina nuchae
Where does the vertebral artery pass through?
transverse vertebral foramina
What are the major cervical lymphocenters
- superficial cervical ln.
- deep cervical ln.: cranial, middle, caudal
Where are the superficial cervical lymphocenters?
- deep to brachiocephalicus (cleidomastoideus)
- probably in fat
Where are the deep cervical lymphocenters?
- cranial: surround thyroid gland
- middle: may or may not see
- caudal: at the level of the thoracic inlet
- affects retropharyngeal lymph nodes
- supportive infection by Strep. equi
- gutteral pouch? affected?
What are the borders of Viborg's triangle?
- cranial: ramus of the mandible (NOT body)
- ventral: linguofacial v. (goes across bottom)
- dorsal: tendon of sternocephalicus m. (descends ventrally)
Describe the trachea
- from C1 to T5/T6
- U shaped cartilaginous rings closed by trachealis m.
Describe the thyroid gland
- loc at 1st tracheal ring immediately caudal to larynx
- palpable in horses
- goiter possible in older horses
- isthmus: variable in equine sp but normal if present = thin band of tis connecting L and R bands
Describe the esophagus
- striated mm. beginning at pharynx to base of heart
- smooth mm. from base of heart to stomach part
How can you monitor the placement of a stomach tube?
can feel or look on L side for bulge going down neck
Describe the location of the splenius m.
- large muscle on the cranio-dorsal part of the neck slightly under trapezius cervicis
- large thick sheet
Describe the location of the trapezius m.
- two parts cervicis and thoracis
- triangular muscle dorsal to the scapula
- extends up the neck and across the withers
- most superficial
Describe the location of the serratus ventralis cervicis m.
- fan-like appearance
- stretching cranio-caudal across the base of the neck
- deep to omotransversarius and trapezius mm.
Describe the location of sternocephalicus
- straplike mm. extending from sternum up to hyoid apparatus and thyroid cartilage
- start more lateral then shift up to more medial
Describe the loc of cutaneus colli m.
- V like mm. on chest
- dorsal to other pectoral mm.
Describe the loc of the omotransversarius
- large strap mm. extending up the neck
- on the lateral side, semi-fused with brachiocephalicus m.
Describe the loc of cleidomastoideus
- cranial part of brachiocephalicus m.
- strap like muscle starting out more fused (then less fused) with omotransversarius up to the head
- medial to omotransversarius
Describe the loc of cleidobrachialis
- ventral part of brachiocephalicus
- on lateral neck
- medial and fused to omotransversarius
Describe loc. of latissimus dorsi m.
- m. going from cranioventral pos. to caudodorsal
- from shoulder to top of mid back
Describe the loc. of obliquus capitis cranialis m.
- part of the poll mm.
- follow ramus of the mandible up to almost top of the head?
Describe the loc. of the longus capitis m.
dorsal part of the scalloped set of mm. on the deep lateral neck
Describe the loc of the scalenus m.
- straplike m?
- deep to brachiocephalicus and omotransversarius
- extends from chest region up to back of head/jaw region
Describe the location of semispinalis capitis m.
- deep to the splenius m.
- from almost nuchal crest? down to thoracic vertebrae it looks like
- dorsal part of neck
Describe the location of longissimus capitis m.
- ventral to semispinalis capitis m.
- dorsal to longissimus atlantis m.
- strap like muscle
Describe the location of longissimus atlantis
- ventral to semispinalis capitis and longissimus atlantis mm.
- strap like m.
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