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What structures are involved in the transduction of pain signals?

sensory nerve endings, nociceptors

What structures are involved in the transmission of pain?

sensory nerves

Where does modulation of the pain signal take place?

spinal cord

Where does perception of pain take place?

cerebral cortex

What neurons are in the ventral horn of the spinal cord?

-interneurons and motor neurons that control skeletal muscle activity

Which spinal cord receptors are excitatory? (mark all that apply)
d. KAI
e. glycine

a, c, d

Which spinal cord receptors are inhibitory? (mark all that apply)
d. KAI
e. glycine

b, e

What does modulation mean?

amplification or suppression of action potentials in the spinal cord

What are some changes associated with central sensitization?

-expansion of receptive field size
-increased magnitude and duration of response
-reduction in threshold

What are three NSAIDs discussed in lecture?


Acetaminophen and Codeine are contraindicated in what species?


What is required for the autoregulation of bloodflow to the glomerulus?


What is the benefit of inhibiting Cox-1 and Cox-2?

prevents the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids (if left unchecked, will produce multiple inflammatory mediators)

Which analgesic is associated with blocking sodium channels?


What drug is used in horses because there is less locomotor effects and less effects on GI motility?


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