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Terms in this set (108)
Average body temperature is _____ degrees centigrade.
What is the main, general purpose of negative feedback?
to maintain homeostasis.
The dorsal body cavity includes what cavities/organs?
cranial/brain and vertebral/spinal cord.
What are the 8 functional characteristics of life?
Maintaining boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth.
An oblique cut is one that is cut _______.
diagonally between vertical and horizontal planes.
A vertical plane that divides the body into unequal right left parts describes a
When the usual negative feedback mechanisms are overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over.
Homeostatic imbalance (considered the cause of most diseases)
The single most abundant chemical substance of the body, accounting for 60% to 80% of body weight, is ______.
In which body cavities are the lungs located?
pleural, ventral, and thoracic.
The heart lies in the ________ cavity.
What is a vertical section through a body, dividing it into anterior and posterior regions, called?
The body cavities that protect the nervous system are located in the ______ cavity.
List the survival needs of the body.
Nutrients, oxygen, water, normal body temperature, and appropriate atmospheric pressure.
Subdivisions of Anatomy include:
Gross anatomy (regional, systemic, surface), microscopic anatomy (cytology and histology), and developmental anatomy (embryology).
The _____ _____ is used as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body.
______ responds fastest to environment stimuli.
The nervous system
An ______ is a structure that is composed of two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific functions for the body.
An increased rate of breathing as a result of an increased buildup of carbon dioxide in the bloodstream would be best described as an example of
responsiveness and excretion.
______ cavities are spaces with joints.
Atoms --> Molecules --> Cells --> Tissues
The study of large body structure, visible to the naked eye, such as the heart is called
A good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be
enhancement of labor contractions.
The cavities housing the eyes are called
If you are studying histology, then you are studying
What two systems are closely associated?
The immune system and the lymphatic system.
Which of the following imaging devices would best localize a tumor in a person's brain?
One of the functional characteristics of life is excitability or responsiveness. This refers to
sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them.
The posterior knee area is called
If you consider your home fair conditioner in terms of homeostasis, then the wall thermostat would be
both the receptor an the control center.
What organs are found in the left iliac region?
intestines - more specifically the initial part of the sigmoid colon.
Which term means toward or at the back of the body, behind?
Describe the operation of the heart and blood vessels.
What is the regional term for the hip region?
The parietal pleura would represent a serous membrane
lining the thoracic cavity.
The anatomical position is characterized by
an erect body with feet slightly apart, palms facing forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body.
In which quadrant of the abdominopelvic cavity is the stomach located?
left upper quadrant
TRUE OR FALSE: Negative feedback mechanisms work to prevent sudden severe changes within the body.
the study of structures visible to the eye
the study of structures too small to be seen by the naked eye
the study of the changes in an individual from conception to birth
The term polled refers to the
What is the vertical section through a body, dividing it into left and right, called?
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains
a relatively stable internal environment, within limits.
The four elements that make up about 96% of body matter are
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
Amino acids joining together to make a peptide is a good example of a
You notice that you cannot read your book through a test tube of patient fluid held against the print, making it so blurred as to be unreadable. There is no precipitate in the bottom of the beaker, though it has been sitting for several days in a rack. What type of liquid is this?
What does the formula C6H12O6 mean?
There is 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen atoms.
Atom X has 17 protons. How many electrons are in its valence shell?
An atom with a valence of 3 may have a total of ___ electrons.
Describe fibrous proteins.
Very stable and insoluble in water.
What can be purely protein or protein plus a cofactor and are always chemically specific.
Sucrose is a
What are some uses for the ATP molecule?
-transport across membranes
TRUE OR FALSE: Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number, but differ in their atomic masses.
Carbohydrates and proteins are built up from their basic building blocks by the
removal of a water molecule between each two units.
Salts are always
TRUE OR FALSE: DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of the bases A, T, G, and C.
What element is necessary for proper conduction of nervous impulses?
Na - sodium
A chemical reaction in which bonds are broken is usually associated with
the release of energy.
What are some factors that influence the rate of a reaction?
Heterogeneous mixtures with large, often visible solutes that tend to settle out.
If atom X has an atomic number of 74 how many protons would it have?
Which property of water is demonstrated when we sweat?
high heat of vaporization
Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles in the form of
TRUE OR FALSE: Larger particles move faster than small ones and thus collide more frequently and more forcefully.
What level of protein synthesis is represented by the boiling of the protein chain backbone into an alpha helix?
TRUE OR FALSE: Proteins appear to be the molecular carriers of coded hereditary information.
____ is regarded as an organic molecule.
The chemical symbol O=O means
the atoms are double bonded.
The process in which DNA's information is encoded in mRNA
The process in which the information carried by mRNA is decoded and used to assemble polypeptides
TRUE OR FALSE: The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.
__________ contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function.
Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?
List roles of cell adhesion molecules.
-anchor cells to molecules in the extracellular space.
-transmitters of intracellular signals that direct cell migrations, proliferation, and specialization
TRUE OR FALSE: Protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomes is a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
Passive membrane transport processes include
movement of a substance down its concentration gradient.
The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is
Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?
The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of a pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a
TRUE OR FALSE: The resting membrane potential is maintain by solely passive transport processes.
Describe what happens once solid material is phagocytize and take into a vacuole.
A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.
The functions of the centrioles include
organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division.
What are two important intracellular chemical signals known as second messengers?
_______ is division of the nucleus.
Phospholipids for a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules is a statement of the
fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure.
Describe the plasma membrane.
A phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell.
If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?
Some hormones enter cells via
A gene can best be described as
a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain.
Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in
a hypertonic solution.
What are some factors that affect the rate of diffusion?
What are the three form of RNA that play a role in protein synthesis?
In certain kinda of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in
the smooth ER.
If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a ______ mRNA codon.
What structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?
If cells are placed in a hypersonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
The cells will lose water and shrink.
_______ are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action.
Digesting particles taken in by endocytosis, degrading worn-out or nonfunctional organelles, and breaking down bone to release calcium ions into the blood are all functions of what organelle?
What is a function of a plasma protein?
Molecular transport through the membrane.
Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?
What moves cell organelles from one location to another inside a cell?
The main component of the cytosol is
________ RNA is a constituent of a plasma membrane.
_________ are a factor that can bind cells together but ________ are not.
Melanin is an _______, not an organelle.
A red blood cell placed in pure water would
swell and burst.
In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?
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