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Terms in this set (36)
What is emotion? What does it result in? What role does it play?
Emotion: Collection of responses triggered by various regions of the brain that impact function of the brain and body
- results in feelings and behavior
- role: Physiological response that helps us adapt to our environment (disorders of emotion leading cause of human suffering).
Plays a critical role in cognitive functions like memory, reasoning, and decision-making
What are the three components of emotion, and which regions contribute to them?
1. Autonomic Response (e.g., increased heart rate)
Hypothalamus and associated structures
2. Subjective Feelings (e.g., fear)
Amygdala and parts of frontal lobes
3. Cognitions (e.g., thoughts about the experience)
Prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal cortex)
How does the context of experiencing an emotion alter the cognitive appraisal of that emotion?
- Fear response to movie is weaker (more short-lived) than fear response to a physically dangerous situation
- you are not afraid for your life when watching the movie like you are in dangerous situation
Amygdala receives input from all the sensory systems - how do it's connections help it to link this external information with processing within the brain and body?
- Autonomic and endocrine responses (through connections with the hypothalamus)
- Conscious awareness, of positive and negative associations (through direct and indirect connections with the PFC)
- Memory and attentional processes (through connections with the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and basal forebrain regions)
What is the evidence that the amygdala can directly modulate sensory processing? What is the potential function of the feedback?
- Amygdala sends axons back to all the higher order visual cortical region that it gets input from.
- Also provides nonreciprocal feedback to early visual cortices, including V1 in the primate
How does the amygdala impact social and emotional functioning?
- Monkeys (following surgical removal of amygdala) show tameness, and loss of innate fear
- More likely to approach stimuli like snakes, that intact monkeys would avoid.
- Humans (following surgical removal of amygdala) show impairments in social judgements
- Subjects with lesions judge faces to be approachable and trustworthy, that normal subjects find untrustworthy.
How does the amygdala impact the learning of emotional associations?
- Animals lose learned/conditioned fears and preferences for specific environmental stimuli with amygdala lesions (both before and after conditioning)
- Human patient with bilateral amygdala lesion:
- Tested ability to acquire conditioned autonomic skin conductance response to neutral stimuli paired with an aversive startle stimulus.
- Patient failed to show skin-conductance responses, but could explain which neutral stimulus predicted the startle stimulus.
How do emotions influence decision making regarding approach/avoidance behavior? Does the influence of emotions on our decision making have to be conscious? Examples?
- impacting decision to approach/avoid and the decision to want or withdraw from stimulus.
- Fear of a predator helps the animal to decide to hide and avoid being observed.
- Liking the taste of a food helps animal decide to seek it out.
Does the influence of emotions on our decision making have to be conscious? Examples?
- Sometimes experience of emotion impacts decision making in a conscious "gut feeling" way.
- Can recall past experiences, how we felt, and what we want to do differently this time
-Sometimes experience of emotion impacts decision making by biasing response in an unconscious way.
- You feel frustrated and annoyed and don't want to be around someone - don't really know why?
How did transorbital leukotomies demonstrate the PFC contribution to emotional behavior?
- Inability to experience and express own emotions and to recognize the emotional expression of others (facial expression, prosody)
- Apathy and loss of initiative or drive
- Inability to plan and organize, leading to poor decision-making
What is the specific role of the orbitofrontal cortex?
- Responsible for integrating visceral emotions into decision-making.
- Connects emotional responses (generated by brain stem and amygdala) to the stream of conscious thought.
Need for stimulation motivates behavior: Describe the setup and results of the sensory deprivation studies that showed this.
- Experimental setup:
- Subject is allowed only restricted sensory input;
- Dimly lit room, restricted vision & hearing, gloves/cardboard tubes to restrict touch.
- Subjects generally had a low tolerance for deprivation - craved stimulation.
- In one version: could listen to a video about alcohol aimed at 6 year olds. Some asked to listed to it more than 20 times a day.
- After about 4 to 8 hours, subjects became quite distressed; few subjects lasted more than 24 hours
- Brain has an inherent need for stimulation; one reason that we are motivated to engage in behavior is to stimulate the brain
Chemical senses motivate behavior: Why are the chemosensory systems (olfaction and gustation) important?
- identify group members
- mark territories
- identify favorite and forbidden foods
- form associations among odors, tastes, and emotional events
-plays a fundamental role. in the biology of emotional and motivated behavior
Where are the olfactory receptors? And how do they send information to the brain via synapses with mitral cells, and connections through either the amygdala/pyriform cortex or the orbitofrontal cortex?
- found on neurons in olfactory epithelium
- send processes to olfactory mucosa
- Mitral cells in olfactory bulb send projections to targets in the brain
- Direct connections to the amygdala and pyriform cortex ("primary olfactory cortex") for perceptual processing
- Some connections relay through thalamus to orbitofrontal cortex (deep in PFC)
What is the function of the accessory olfactory system? What influences menstrual synchrony among groups of women living together? How does the flehmen response activate the vomeronasal organ?
- Responds to pheromones
- Chemosignals released by one animal 🡪 affect physiology or behavior of another animal (synchrony in menstrual cycles)
- Detected by a special olfactory receptor system known as the vomeronasal organ (flehmen response)
Where does the accessory olfactory bulb project in the brain?
- Connected to the amygdala and hypothalamus
How does evolution motivate behavior? What is an IRM? How can it motivate a defensive response in a cat and facial expression in a newborn? Why are both of these adaptive and triggered by these innate mechanisms?
- IRM: Innate Releasing Mechanisms: activate/trigger inborn, adaptive responses that aid survival.
- "Halloween" cat innately stimulates cats to respond defensively -raised fur, arched backs, and bared teeth
- Picasso cat (misshapen): no response
- Adults display various exaggerated facial expressions towards baby
- Babies responded with very much the same expressions (mirror neurons)
- Newborns too young to be imitating the adult faces intentionally
-Behaviors exist because the neural circuits producing them have been favored through natural selection
How does learning motivate behavior? What is learned taste aversion (coyote/sheep study)?
- learning motivates behavior because you create associations that change behavior
- Coyotes were killing sheep - traditional approaches not working.
- Poisoned sheep carcass, made coyotes ill when ate it.
- most coyotes learned to never eat sheep again
What is preparedness? How does this challenge the idea that any association can be learned?
- Preparedness: Nervous system is genetically prewired to make some associations but not to make others
-through evolution, you cannot make any association because not all are needed for survival
How do the limbic system and the frontal lobes contribute to emotional and motivated behavior?
- limbic system, the amygdala plays an important role in controlling motivational behaviors, such as reward-related motivation as well as appetitive and aversive behaviors
Why does direct electrical stimulation of the hypothalamus produce motivated behavior? What types of motivated behaviors have been produced by hypothalamic stimulation?
- because it's a part of the mesolimbic dopamine system
How did the Olds Milner intracranial self-stimulation studies uncover the role of mesolimbic dopamine in reward?
- Rats will press a bar to self-administer electrical stimulation to specific sites in the brain (intracranial self-stimulation)
- Lateral hypothalamus and medial forebrain bundle are especially effective (part of mesolimbic dopamine system)
-became obsessed with pressing bar and getting reward
What is the difference between wanting and liking a reward, in terms of brain regions involved?
- Wanting (appetitive) : Involves dopamine (mesolimbic dopamine system)
- Liking: Involves opioid and benzodiazepine-GABA systems
What is the relationship between dopamine release and reward? How is this relationship shown during intracranial self-stimulation, addictive drugs, naturally rewarding behavior such as feeding or sexual activity?
1. Dopamine release shows a marked increase when animals are engaged in intracranial self-stimulation
2. Drugs that enhance dopamine release increase self-stimulation;
- Drugs that decrease dopamine release decrease self-stimulation
- Amount of dopamine released helps determine how rewarding an event is
3. When animals engage in behaviors such as feeding or sexual activity, dopamine release rapidly increases in locations such as the nucleus accumbens
- Highly addictive drugs such as nicotine and cocaine also increase the level of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
- Tapping into the same reward mechanisms used by evolution to reinforce survival behaviors
What is learning? What is memory?
Learning: Change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Memory: Ability to recall or recognize previous experience
How is our connectome impacted by learning and memory?
Brain is plastic - synapses change with experience.
Reweighting: Change in the strength of an existing connection.
Reconnection/Rewiring: Creation of an entirely new connection or the elimination of an old one
How is memory studied in humans? What are the limitations of asking people what they can remember?
People can be asked - but this only captures the learning and memories that they are aware of
Why must the learning/memory test used with animals be ethologically relevant to the animal's behavioral repertoire?
Choice of test used must match the capability of the animal studied
How does learning occur through classical conditioning? UCS, UCR, CS, CR
- unconditioned stimulus produces unconditioned response
- conditioned stimulus paired with unconditioned stimulus until CS alone produces conditioned response
Eyeblink conditioning: Humans
- puff of air (US) produces blink response (UR)
- tone (CS) paired with puff of air (US) - until tone alone able to produce blink (UR)
-mediated by cerebellum - circuits designed to pair motor responses with environmental events
Fear conditioning: Animals
- noxious stimulus (US: mild electrical current) produces a fear response (UR) - CS (tone) and the CR (fear response: freezing, urinating)
-emotional nature of CR relies on circuits in the amygdala
How does learning occur through operant conditioning? Reinforcer, punisher, Thorndike's puzzle boxes
- Reinforcers: Produce desirable consequences - a reinforcer makes associated behavior more likely to occur in future.
-Thorndike's puzzle boxes:
-Behavior: Pressing a lever
-Consequence: Getting out of the puzzle box to access food
-Pressing the lever is reinforced because produces desirable consequence of getting cat out of the box (cat is hungry!) - reward/dopamine
Neural basis of operant associations are not localized - depends on the requirements of the task. What patterns of activation are observed when the association is olfactory? Spatial? Motor?
- Olfactory tasks require regions like the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala.
- Spatial tasks require the hippocampus
- Motor tasks require the basal ganglia
Distinguish working memory from long-term memory
- WM: few minutes in duration, info currently you're currently working with, easy to access but fragile, frontal lobes
- LTM: indefinite duration, difficult to store/access, permanent and limitless, temporal lobes, explicit, implicit and emotional memory
What is implicit vs. explicit memory?
- Explicit: Conscious memory: subjects can retrieve an item and indicate that they know that the retrieved item is the correct item
- Implicit: Unconscious memory: subjects can demonstrate knowledge, such as a skill, conditioned response, or recalling events on prompting, but cannot explicitly retrieve the information
How did the "Fall" study, the Gollin Figure test, and the Pursuit Rotor Task show the effect of priming and the measurement of implicit memory?
- Fall Study: two groups shown list (g1 - summer, spring, car, boat) (g2- tumble, trip, run, walk)
- then asked the define list of words
- when asked to define 'fall' - group 1 likely to say season, group 2 likely to say accident
-Gollin Figure Test: shown series of incomplete images that gradually get more complete until they can identify it
-later shown same images (pics/words) and able to identify it earlier
-Pursuit Rotor: metal disk moving in circular motions, told to keep a stylus on the disk
-after an hour most can complete it
- a week later it takes less time/less mistakes for them to do it successfully
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