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53 terms

Earth Science Chapter 3--4

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atomic number
The number of protons in a nucleus.
mass number
The sum of protons and the neutrons in the nucleus
isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different mass numbers
valence electrons
the number of electrons in the outermost energy level
oxygen and silicon= what percent of the earths crust
75%
compound
a substance composed of two or more atoms of different elements
chemical bond
is the force that holds together the elements in a cimpound
covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
ionic bond
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
molecule
2 or more atoms held by covalent bonds
metallic bond
a chemical bond in which electrons are shared over many nuclei and electronic conduction occurs
chemical reaction
the change of one or more substances into other substances
homogeneous
particles cant be distinguished in a solution
acid
a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions in water
ph scale goes 1-?
14
lemon=
2
tomato=
4
milk=
6
distilled water=
7
antacid=
10
ammonia=
11
drain cleaner=
13
base
a substance that produces hydroxide ions in water
most solids are _______ because the particles inside form regular geometric patterns
crystalline structure
thermal vibrations
at any tempertaure above -273 *C atoms move
evaporation
when a liquid reaches its boiing point and turns into a gas
plasma
highly ionized electrically conducted gas
condensation
when a gas cools and becomes a liquid
sublimation
when a solid goes to a gas
in order to be a mineral a substance has to be____&_____
naturally occuring, and inorganic
crystal
a solid with atoms arranged in repeating patterns
2 ways minerals form from
solution, lava
luster
measures how light reflects from the surface of a mineral, subjective
crystal form
how the particles inside a mineral form in patterns.
hardness
how easily a mineral can be scratched
mohs scale talc
1
mohs scale diamond
10
mohs scale gypsum
2
mohs scale calcite
3
mohs scale flourite
4
mohs scale apatite
5
mohs scale feldspar
6
mohs scale quartz
7
mohs scale topaz
8
mohs scale corundum
9
cleavage
how a mineral splits
streak
the color of a mineral in powder form
silicates
minerals that contain silicon, and oxygen
tetrahedrons
chain, double chain, sheet
carbonated
minerals that contain co3
oxides
minerals that contain oxygen and a metal
ore
a mineral that can be mined for a profit
gem
mined minerals which are valued for beauty