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AP World History (Semester 1)

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writing
The term prehistory refers to the period before
language skills
The most important development of Homo erectus was
They had brains roughly the same size as those of modern humans.
Which of the following statements is not true of Homo erectus?
They were hunters and gathers
Which of the following statements is true of the inhabitants of the Paleolithic Age?
general social equality
Many scholars believe society based on the importance of gathering edible plants
accumulate knowledge and transmit it to new generations.
With the development of languages, human beings were able to
agricultural transition.
Instead of the potentially misleading term agricultural revolution, many anthropologists prefer the term
slash and burn
One of the earliest known agricultural techniques was
one hundred million
The mastery of agriculture led to a population explosion. From a sparse population of around four million in 10,000 BCE, the global figure rose by around 500 BCE to around
pottery
The earliest of the three Neolithic craft industries was
copper
The earliest metal worked systematically by humans was
land
The ultimate source of wealth in any agricultural society is
"the land between the two rivers"
The word Mesopotamia means
Sumer
The first complex society was developed in the southern Mesopotamian land of
ziggurat
A Mesopotamian stepped pyramid was known as a
monarchy
After 3000 BCE all Sumerian cities were ruled by what form of government?
Sargon of Akkad
The creator of the first empire in Mesopotamia was
Hammurabi
What individual believed that the gods had chosen him to "promote the welfare of the people... [and] to cause justice to prevail in the land?"
Assyrians
The later Mesopotamian people who built a large empire based on a powerful army with iron weapons and who made extensive use of terror were the
Nebuchadnezzar
A Babylonian resurgence of power was led in the sixth century BCE by
bronze
Mesopotamian metalworkers discovered that if they alloyed copper and tin they could produce
Hittites
Iron metallurgy came to Mesopotamia from the
Sumerians
The first people in the world to use wheeled vehicles were the
traded extensively with peoples as far away as Anatolia, Egypt, and India.
Evidence shows that the Mesopotamians
slaves
in Mesopotamia, prisoners of war, convicted criminals, and heavily indebted individuals were the three main sources for
a strict patriarchal society
Mesopotamia developed into
grew increasingly worse over time
Conditions for women in Mesopotamia
cuneiform
The Mesopotamian style of writing was known as
Hebrews
Ethical monotheism was in the tradition of the
Phoenicians
The first simplified alphabet, containing only 22 letters, was created by the
Southern Russia
The original homeland of the Indo-European speakers was
Hittites
Horse-drawn chariots were first invented by the
Egypt
Which of the following societies began the custom of embalming to preserve the body for its life after death?
Nile
The Greek historian Herodotus called proclaimed Egypt the "gift of the...
Menes
Egypt was united around 3100 BCE by the conqueror
Old Kingdom
The largest Egyptian pyramids were built during the
Khufu
_________ is the largest of all the early African pyramids
less powerful than pharaohs of the Old Kingdom
Pharaohs in the Middle Kingdom were
Memphis
Around 3100 BCE the conqueror of upper and lower Egypt founded ________, a city that would serve as the capital for early Egypt.
external invaders who helped bring about the end of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.
The Hyksos were
Hyksos
Horse-drawn chariots and bronze weapons were introduced into Egypt by the
Tuthmosis III
The most vigorous of all New Kingdom pharaohs was ______, who led his troops into Palestine and Syria and who even received tribute from the Mesopotamian city-states.
New Kingdom
The Egyptians were the most imperialistic during the
the Assyrian empire
In the mid-seventh century BCE Egypt lost its independence and became a part of
a woman who ruled Egypt as pharaoh
Hatshepsut was
Egypt
in which of the following societies did women enjoy the most freedom and opportunity?
arose independently
In Africa, iron metallurgy
Hieroglyphs
The Greek words meaning "holy inscriptions" refers to
Akhenaten
What pharaoh tried, unsuccessfully, to transform Egypt into a monotheistic society?
Osiris
The Egyptian god of the underworld was
modern day Nigeria
The Bantu originally came from around
Indo- Europeans
By spreading their language across a huge stretch of Africa, the Bantu played a role similar to that played by the
population pressures
The Bantu probably began their migrations because of
Aryans
Indo Europeans who began to migrate to northern India by 1500 BCE
Indra
God of War and Rain
Harappan
After 1900 BCE this urban society began declining probably due to ecological degradation
Jati
Sub-castes determined largely by one's occupation
Sati
A widow threw herself on her husband's funeral pyre
Karma
Sum of good and bad in a person's life
Moksha
Principal means to achieve this state was asceticism and meditation
Upanishads
Gathering before a sage to discuss religious issues
Shudras
Landless peasants and serfs
Varna
Refers to the major social classes (means color)
Brahman
Universal Soul
Rig Veda
A collection of 1028 hymns honoring the gods
Mohenjo Daro
This city was laid out in a grid, indoor plumbing, wealthy
Sanskrit
Sacred language of the Vedas
Punjab
The upper Indus River valley, straddles the modern borders between India and Pakistan
Xia
This dynasty made one of the first efforts to organize public life in China on a large scale; established the precedent for hereditary monarchical rule in China
Qin
Ended the period of warring states and brought China under tightly centralized rule, new dynasty founded in 221 BCE
Yangshao
Neolithic village at Banpo reveled this early Chinese Society (5000-3000 BCE)
Zhou
This dynasty's rulers relied on a decentralized administration (iron weapons)
Shang
This dynasty controlled the production of Bronze
Huang He
China's earliest dynasties founded near this river
Oracle Bones
Early Chinese writing found on these (more than 2000 characters)
Tian
Chinese term for heaven
Ao
One of the Shang dynasties earliest capitals (city wall stood 33 feet high)
Yu
Founded the Xia dynasty
Tikal
Mayan capital and most important political center
Mayan
invented the mathematical concept of zero
Olmecs
First society of Mesoamerica
Austronesian Peoples
They established hierarchical chiefdoms in the Pacific Islands, their languages can be traced to many Oceanic languages (arrived form Southeast Asia about 5000 years ago)
Lapita Peoples
The first Austronesian migrants to sail out into the Pacific Ocean and establish settlements in the Pacific islands; sailed as far as Madagascar
New Guinea
Turned to agriculture cultivated root crops, kept pigs and chickens, was connected to Australia until about 10,000 years ago
Australia
Human settlers here maintained hunting and gathering societies until large numbers of Europeans settled there in the 19th and 20th centuries
Popol Vuh
Outlines the traditional Mayan view of the creation of the world (Finally decided to use maize and water as their ingredients)
Chichen Itza
City located in the northern Yucatan Peninsula
Rubber People
The term Olmec means what?
Cambyses
This Persian emperor added Egypt to the empire
Xerxes
This Persian emperor not as tolerant as his predecessors; invaded Greece
Darius
The greatest of the Achaemenid Empire
Cyrus
Founder of the Achaemenid Empire
Persepolis
The magnificent capital of the Persian empire
Satrapies
Persian administrative units
Lydians
The major turning point in the rise of the Persian Empire was a victory against who?
Lydians
IDea of a standardized government-issued coinage came from the ________
Achaemenid
Cyrus founded this empire
Quanats
underground canals
Marathon
Greeks defeated the Persians at this battle
Seleucid
After the death of Alexander, the empire was divided into 3 empires...the main one was...
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra described the "wise lord" (said the material world was a gift)
Angra Mainyu
Lord of evil spirits
Wudi
Most powerful Han emperor, known for imperial expansion and centralization
Liu Bang
Founder of the Han dynasty
wuwei
Disengagement from the affairs of the world
Confucianism
This philosophy believed in the proper ordering of human relationships
Laozi
Founder of Daoism
Dao
Means "the way"
Qin Shihuangdi
Chinese script was standardized during his reign, burned books, Great Wall
Zhou
The literary works of this dynasty became the core texts of traditional Chinese education
Han
This dynasty fostered cultural unity, prosperous, followed the Qin dynasty
Junzi
Confucian "superior individuals" took an active role in public affairs
Wang Mang
Known as the Socialist emperor
Mencius
Most influential post-Confucian philosopher, human nature essentially good
Analects
Cllection of Confucian saying and teachings
Legalism
This philosophy returned order to China after the Period of Warring states, collective punishment, clear and strict laws
Xiongnu
This group was the greatest threat to the Han dynasty
Chandra Gupta
He founded the Gupta Dynasty
Ahimsa
The Jain principle of non-violence
Kalinga
Ashoka fought his bloodiest battle against
Chandragupta Maurya
The first ruler to unify India
Ashoka
Issued the rock and pillar edicts, high point o f Mauryan success
Gautama
Founder of Buddhism
Mahavira
Founder of of Jainism
Alexander
His invasion of India in 327 BCE caused political chaos that led to the eventual unification of India
White Huns
One of the causes of the eventual collapse of the Gupta state was the invasion of the...
Jains
This religious group thought all living things had a soul
*Helots
*They rose up against the Spartans
Solon
Helped prevent Civil War in Athens (promoted democratic reforms)
Salamis
the decisive battle of the 2nd Persian War
Sparta
They won the Peloponnesian War
Plato
In the Republic he proposed that philosopher kings should rule
Pericles
Led Athens during its Golden Age
Athens
The leader of the Delian League
Socrates
He believed that honor was more important than wealth and fame
Aristotle
The personal tutor of Alexander the Great
Minoan
Earliest Greek civilization
Dorian
Lost the ability to read and write
Myceanean
Fought in the Trojan War
Plebeian
In Rome's early Republic, this group had more rights...
Patricians
Upper aristocratic class in Rome
Tacitus
The most important early Roman historian
Paul
Because he was a Roman Citizen, appealed his case to Rome, later executed
Latifundia
These were large plantation worked by slaves
Tiberius Gracchus
Tribune who called for land reform, was assassinated in 132 B.C.
consuls
They served as the executive branch in the Roman Republic
Etruscans
During its early history, Rome was dominated by the...
Marius
Created an army of common men who were loyal only to him (general)
Actium
Octavain's victory against Egypt in this battle restored order to Rome
Cleopatra
The last of the Ptolemaic rulers
Augustus Caesar
First emperor of Rome (monarchy disguised as a Republic)
Sulla
This general was supported by the Roman aristocrats
Gravitas
Discipline, strength and loyalty
Stoicism
Most prominent school of moral philosophy in Rome
Julius Caesar
He sought to appoint some Gauls to the Roman Senate
Twelve Tables
The law book for ancient Rome; uses many principles that we use today such as innocent until proven guilty
Gauls
North society just outside of Rome, sacked Rome in 390 BCE, later conquered by Julius Ceasar
Proletariat
urban, landless poor
Council of Nicaea
Decided that Jesus possessed both human and divine natures
Romulus Augustulus
The last Roman emperor in the West
Alaric
The leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 CE
Attila
The leader of the Huns
Diocletian
The Roman Empire was divided into two parts by this emperor
Zhang Qian
The information he brought back helped lay the foundations for the Silk Roads
Byzantine
After the collapse of the western half of the Roman Empire, name the eastern half that survived for another thousand years...
Marcus Aurelius
Smallpox claimed the life of this Roman Emperor
Buddhism
Spread by merchants along the silk roads
Antioch
In the West the silk roads terminated in this Turkish port
Taklamakan
One of the most dangerous spots along the silk roads
Xiongnu
Han Wudi wanted to line up allies to destroy what enemy?
Constantine
This emperor forbade the persecution of Christians
Peter
Bishop of Rome
Paul
Did the most to spread Christianity in the Roman Empire
Barracks Emperors
26 generals who took power during the chaotic period; all died a terrible death except one who had a non-chaotic death
Caesaropapism
System whereby the emperor has a mixture of political and religious authority
Hagia Sophia
A magnificent domed church, later became a mosque
Constantinople
Important for its strategic location; later renamed Istanbul
Belisarius
This general reconquered much of the Western Roman empire from Germanic peoples
Charlemagne
Crowed Holy Roman Emperor Christmas day in the year 8000 by Pope Leo III
Leo III
Banned the use of Icons
St. Basil
Played a key role in the rise of Monasticism
St. Methodius and St. Cyril
Helped devise an alphabet to represent the sounds of Slavic languages
Prince Vladmir
His conversion in 989 helped the rise of Orthodox Christianity in Russia
Kiev
This city was most important in the early rise of Russia
Moscow
Russian later began to think of this city as third Rome
Ottoman Turks
In 1453, the Byzantine Empire came to an end when they captured Constantinople
Salijuq Turks
They entered the Abbasid realm and converted to Islam (10th century)
Justinian
His most significant contribution was his codification of Roman law
silk
according to Procopius, two 6th century Christian monks undertook an elaborate smuggling operation to provide Byzantium with the knowledge to produce
Theodora
The wife of Justinian, who proved to be an invaluable adviser, was
Greek
From the 6th century on, the official language of Constantinople was
Greek Fire
A weapon used by the Byzantine empire, very powerful and deadly; used to hold off the Islams from taking total control
Theme System
a system used that gave a certain amount of land (a theme) to generals and military leaders
Jihad
Islamic holy war; "stuggle"
Quran
The holy book of Islam
Submission
The term Islam means what?
Sharai
Islamic holy law
Sunni
The main split inside Islam was between Shia and (what other sect?)
Jizya
Special head tax paid during Umayyad period if subjects did not convert
Bagdad
The capital of the Abbasid Empire
Saljuq Turks
The Abbasid dynasty came to an end in 1258 when it was overrun by the
Madrassas
Islamic leaders supported institutions of higher learning called
hajj
All Muslims must make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once (what is this called?)
Sakk
Islamic banks honored letters of credit known as a...
Caliph
no religious leader could follow Muhammad, so political authority rested in the position of the...
paper manufacture
What new industry, transmitted to the Islamic world from China, was introduced during the Abbasid period?
four
The Quran, following the example of Muhammad, allowed men to have up to how many wives?
"house of Islam"
The phrase dar al-Islam means...
Shogun
Military Governor (held power in place of the emperor)
Samurai
Mounted warrior
Taizong
Energetic second ruler of the Tang dynasty
Grand canal
Stretched from Hangzhou to Chang'an
Tang dynasty
Equal field system implemented under this dynasty
Dharma
Buddhist missionaries translated this Indian term as dao
Kamakura shogunate
In 1185 the Minamoto clan established the...
Viet people
Revolted against the Tang and won their independence (10th century)
Song dynasty
In 1279, this dynasty fell to the Mongols
Sui dynasty
Dynasty that constructed the Grand Canal
Xuanzang
Helped to popularize Buddhism in China
fast-ripening rice
the most important new crop introduced into China during the Tang and Sing periods was...
magnetic compass
the most influential Chinese, naval, technological innovation was the...
Shinto
The native religion of Japan is
Foot binding
a technique used by women to show the male dominance; they would wrap their feet to produce deformed feet so they were unable to walk on their own; mainly used by wealthy
Middle Kingdom
Powerful China realm; subordinate lands by tribute lands
Feudalism
political and military system based on the holding of land
Fief
Land given to a vassal
justice
The Lord's greatest peacetime duty
Knights
Vassals of the Lord; required to fight in the Lord's army
Manor
The economic side of feudalism
serfs
worked for the lords, tenants of the manor
Newfoundland
Westernmost point of Viking expansion
Feudalism
Political and military system based on the holding of land
Scandinavia
Vikings homeland
Investiture
Symbolic act through which the lord presented the vassal with a clod of dirt
Battle of Tours
Stopped the Muslim advance across the Pyrenees
Eric the Red
Established a small colony in Greenland
Lief Ericson
He was the first European to reach North America
Khan
Universal ruler
Tamerlane
filled the power vacuum left by the weakening Mongol Empire
Osman
Founder of the Ottoman Empire
Shaman
Religious specialist who possessed supernatural powers
Ilkanate of Persia
Encompassed present day Iran
Khanate of the Golden Horde
Russia
Khanate of the Great Khan
China
Yurt
Large felt tents of the Nomadic people
Yuan
Mongol Dynasty
Mazikert
Salijuq forces defeated the Byzantine empire here
Fluid
Describes the class structure of nomadic societies
Kublai Khan
Twice unsuccessfully tried to conquer Japan
Genghis Khan
united all Mongol tribes into one of the biggest empires the world had seen; he set up a capital at Karakorum; he was a conqueror-not an administrator
Bubonic Plague
traveled along the silk roads and greatly affected China, Europe, and the slave trade; most thought it was safe to travel along the silk roads due to Pox Mongolia, but the plague infected and devastated many societies
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler, served on Kubali's court for around 2 decades, he tells stories about China and his experiences there (while on Kubali's court) while in prison and a book is written based on these stories which inspires Europe to want to know more about China and their culture- later influencing Europe greatly.
Mansa Musa
Made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324
Swahili
means "coasters"
Kongo
Most tightly centralized 14th century Bantu Kingdom
Age Grade
Group that performed tasks based on their strength and maturity
Bantu
By 1000, most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa had been settled by people speaking what language?
Bananas
resulted in a fresh migratory surge in Africa, population increased
Zimbabwe
The "dwelling of the chief"
Slaves
important aspect of determining personal wealth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gold
Mali became the wealthiest kingdom in sub-Saharan Africa because of its control of...
Axum
Christian Kingdom in Ethiopia
West Africa
Depended on trans-Saharan trade
East Africa
Depended on Indian Ocean trade
Iron
By 500 BC, the Bantu had begun to produce this...
Hanseatic League
developed near Baltic and North Sea; well-developed trade network that encompassed all major trading cities; dominated trade in grain, fish, furs, timber, and pitch from Northern Europe