Environmental Ethics Exam 3

laws of nature
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vogel argues that the concept of nature is the broad sense doesn't make sense
p1 - nature is anything untouched by humans
p2 - but any idea of nature is already touched by humans is as long as humans came up with this term
c - no concept of nature can ever be touched by humans, the very idea is a contradiction
non-hierarchal biocentrismall life counts equally even if respecting it requires different thingshierarchal biocentrismsome life counts for more than other types of life p1 - plants matter because they have life p2 - animals matter more because they are both alive and feel pain c - animals matter more than plantsargument for special care for artificial lifep1 - we have a special obligation to take care of what we create p2 - we created artificial life and it can flourish c - we should take care of artificial lifethe precautionary principlewhere there are threats of serious of irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradationprecaution and artificial life (argument)this principle is important for artificial life because we are uncertain what artificial life truly is the precautionary principle suffuses that we ought to still protect it all other things being equal p1 - when things are equal, we should protect that environment even if we are uncertain about what will work p2 - we are uncertain that artificial life counts as life c - we should still protect artificial life even in light of this uncertaintyobjections to artificial lifeartificial life lacks an independent goal and therefore cannot be harmed it is impossible to cause irreversible damage to artificial life because it was created by us to begin with these organisms don't count as life in a meaningful sense because they cannot flourish without human intervention in some cases, the organism don't flourish at allshallow ecologythe purpose of environmental efforts is to make the world a better place for humans movements are small and focus on specific things solutions tend to be short termcentral principlefight against resource depletioncentral objectiveprotect the health and affluence of people in developed countriesdeep ecologyassumes holism or that the entire earth has value focuses on long term solutions to environmental problemsecosophya science that tells right or wrongthick conceptsconcepts that are both descriptive and normative (*****)principles in deep ecologyreject of people of nature all organism have equal right to live and this is best achieved through cooperation survival of the fittest is a myth, we should instead embrace diversity of life there are no social classes nor classes of organisms, classism suppresses diversity any fight against pollution must include consideration of the whole society should embrace complexity in structure, but not fragment it there should be no top level authority, only local authorityecosophical T ideasthe widening of the concept of self the process of identification maturity as a process of identification holism holism as intrinsic value a new sense of objectivityidentificationthe process by which we identify with something other than ourselves removes alienation or the need to constrain natural impulse because it makes us want to act for the othervitalnesshow much would this protect lifenearnesshow much time/space can we devote to solving thisholismall of environment has value problem: explaining what makes the environment ent has value that doesn't then apply to too many thingsreducible valuea moral value that can be reduced to a simpler moral valueirreducible valuea moral value that cannot be reduced to a simpler valueself-identitynot a conscious concept your mere existence maintains your orderly identitylimits of holistic valuethe value matters only as much as the entity will continue to existstewardshipthe idea that we should care for nature