Only $35.99/year

History 101 World Civilization I

Terms in this set (3)

Chapter 10
1. Africa is the world's second largest continent (Asia is the first), and it is incredibly stratified and diverse in terms of its cultural composition, making broad generalizations about Africa (e.g. African culture is....African people are) virtually meaningless. TRUE

2. African geography is also diverse, and its includes five climate zones , from fertile land with intermittent rainfall, to dry steppes with little plant life. TRUE

3. Geography played a role in how humans interacted with the environment in Africa, where dry steppe regions prompted herding, savanna regions around the Nile encouraged grain-based farming, tropical forests facilitated hunter-gathering and later root-based agriculture, and riverine environments and those surrounding lakes encouraged fishing. TRUE

4. Those peoples living on the coasts, rivers and trade routes in Africa quite naturally had the most interaction with foreigners and visitors. TRUE

5. One of the greatest site of archaeological finds was Africa's Great Rift Valley (present-day Kenya and Tanzania) and work of this nature in the valley suggests that early Africans grew cereals and made wooden and stone tools, but perhaps prized cattle, which flourished in the rich savanna where there were no tsetse flies, even more. TRUE

6. The spread of iron working has been linked to the migration of the Bantu peoples, who came to compose most of the 70 million people south of the Congo River. Europeans and Muslims rarely entered these areas, therefore, written sources are few. We rely upon oral tradition, linguistics, archaeology, anthropology, and even botany and zoology to piece together the history of this region. TRUE

7. Trans-Saharan trade depended upon the use of camels, which can carry five hundred pounds as far as twenty-five miles a day and live without drinking for several days, across the expanses of the desert. TRUE

8. The Berbers of North Africa were like the Bedouins in that they dominated the trade routes between the Mediterranean coast on northern Africa due to their martial abilities in which they relied on their knowledge and command of camels, and extracted large sums of money through "protection" of peoples who were less familiar with camels and less capable of mobility within the desert trade routes. TRUE

9. In 992 the King of Ghana captured the town of Awdaghost, which was located on the trans-Saharan trade route. extended this influence to the Atlantic Coast by 1000, and extended its influence by subjugating other tribes to the south and east. By the eleventh century, the Ghanaian king held dominion over an area approximately the size of Texas. TRUE

10. The Kingdom of Mali owed much of its success between 1200-1450 to the abundant agricultural and commercial capacity, which was capable of accommodating large populations, and the charisma of two regional kings, Sundiata and Mansa Musa. We now know that Mansa Musa built upon Suniata's commercial and financial success due to the writing of al-Omari, one of the officials of the sultan in Cairo, who chronicled Musa's arrival in Cairo, where he spread his riches literally to every court official or other high ranking official of the sultanate. TRUE
Chapter 12
1. During the six centuries between 800 and 1400 East Asia was the most advanced region of the world. TRUE

2. Historians generally see China as a creative society advanced by vigorous individuals who extended their borders and fostered peace internally, while creating a fair system of taxation that would permit the poor to live well. Over time, however, the wealthy learned how to avoid taxes forcing the burden to fall more harshly upon the poor, which resulted in destabilization of Chinese society. This was known as the dynastic cycle. TRUE

3. The Chinese Tang Dynasty was fragmenting by the beginning of the 9th Century, in part due to pressure on its borders from the Tibetans and Uighur Turks. TRUE

4. According to our authors, the Tang dynasty rapidly disintegrated because of a weak government and lack of centralization during the late years of its rule, which caused decreased economic and intellectual vibrancy. FALSE

5. The late Tang merchants increasingly dealt in an economy that relied more on coinage, resulting in output of more than 6 billion coins a year by 1085. To counter this burden, early Song rulers permitted select merchants a monopoly to trade receipts from large transactions they had made, The Song government took over this system by the 1120s, which became the world's first system of paper monies. TRUE

6. While the ability of a magnetic needle had been known long before widespread use of the compass, which became suitable for use in seafaring travel only after the needle was made smaller and attached to a fixed stem in lieu of floating in water, permitting its suitability for use in sea travel by 1119. TRUE

7. Aristocratic privileges habits and prejudices waned during the Chinese Song period when the scholar official class certified through a competitive civil-service examinations, making them much better educated than previous elites by the time that this examination system fully developed. TRUE

8. Early printing was fairly advanced by mid- 9th Century in East Asia. Tang artisans used system of wooden blocks was used in which the carved words in them were covered in ink and transferred to paper. Meanwhile, a system of movable type in which one piece of type was used for each character, but whole block printing was cheaper and used far more prodigiously. TRUE

9. Our authors observe that feudalism in Europe flourished after Germanic and Roman culture fused, maturing when they experienced invasions by Muslim peoples and Vikings. In Japan, however, militarism developed due to native warrior traditions and Confucian ethics that emphasized dutiy to superiors. TRUE

10. During Song times, women generally married between the ages of sixteen and twenty. Their husbands were generally a couple of years older than them and these liaisons were usually arranged by parents of professional matchmakers. They tried to match the young women with a male of relatively equal status, however, a man who had passed the civil service exam was generally considered a good candidate regardless of whether his family possessed much wealth. TRUE
Chapter 13
1. The nomadic peoples along the fringes of Eurasia from China and Korea and India and Persia were known as the Turks. true

2. By the tenth Century C.E. the Turks were converting to Islam. TRUE

3. In the late-twelfth and early-thirteenth centuries, Chingis Kahn and the Mongols subdued numerous societies between the Byzantine Empire and the Pacific Ocean. TRUE

4. In the period of the expansion of the Mongol Empire, India developed a flourishing seaborne trade and local culture as the Mongols never gained a foothold there. TRUE

5. Over the course of several centuries Arabs and Turks brought Islam to India. In 711 C.E. the Umayyad governor sent 6,000 horses and camels to seize the Sind area in Western India, an area known today as Pakistan. This region remained part of the Umayyad Caliphate for centuries but never spread much beyond this original expansion. TRUE

6. By 1030 C.E. the Turks had expanded into the Indus valley, the Punjab, and all of Northwest India. The invaders encouraged Islam but the Indian caste system worked against conversion of higher caste Indians. TRUE

7. The Muslims expanded into India and its extremities, reaching an accommodation with local Hindus who, like Jews and Christians, became protected people who were allowed to follow their own religion. these subject peoples paid a special tax, but were not required to perform military service. TRUE

8. The Turks provided opportunities for lower-caste Indians, but in general, Muslims were more hostile to Buddhism, which they viewed as a competing proselytizing religion. In 1193 C.E. the Turks destroyed the Buddhist University at Nalanda, Bihar. TRUE

9. Chinese culture ultimately became an essential element in the development of Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese societies, but the Southeast Asian climate was more like India than China, with temperatures of approximately 80 degrees north and south of mountain ranges that were separated by river valleys. There was considerable Indian influence in the region. TRUE

10. Flourishing trade between Vietnam and India occurred between the first and sixth centuries C.E., as the Vietnamese occupied much of what became known as Indochina. Buddhist priests settled in Vietnam and remained a vital influence on society there throughout the period under study. TRUE
Chapter 14
1. In the ninth century, Germanic pagan peoples known as Vikings embarked on aquatic expeditions that took them as far west as Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland, Canada, and East to the rivers of Russia and then south as far as the Black Sea. TRUE

2. Feudalism in Europe during the ninth century appeared as a result of Viking and other invasions that caused instability in the so-called Holy Roman Empire. Decentralization of power undermined the authority of kings and other royals at the regional level, placing the burden of protection on local aristocracies across much of Europe. TRUE

3. The local system of power in Europe grew out of earlier notions of Germanic loyalty and oaths, a system of vassalage in which warriors swore allegiance to more powerful individual, becoming his vassal. The "lord" promised his vassal protection, in most cases on land granted to the vassal by the lord in order to secure his loyalty. TRUE

4. In the lawless times of the ninth century, a system of manorialism refers to landed estates of the warrior class that were worked by peasants. Even free farmers often willingly surrendered their lands to garner the protection that local warlords offered. TRUE

5. According to our authors, the serfdom that resulted from invasions of the ninth century and the long-term political instability that they caused, which entailed that by 1000 most western Europeans had become serfs. TRUE

6. The first Viking to consolidate all of "Anglo-Saxon" England was the Viking Canute (r. 1016-1035), who made England the center of his empire and promoted a rapprochement and system of assimilation between Anglo-Saxons and the Vikings. TRUE

7. After the heir to King Canute died three claimants aspired to the throne, a contest that was decided at the Battle of Hastings in 1453 when William of Normandy crossed the English Channel and defeated the army of Harold II. False

8. King William the Conqueror sent his agents all across England gathering inforation on his realm to help him govern it, but his surveyors did such a shoddy job that the entire work, which came to be called his Doomsday Book, had to be scrapped. False

9. The French King Louis IX (r. 1226-1270) created a royal system of justice that recognized traditional French laws, but he also established the so-called Parlement of Paris, a kind of supreme court that heard appeals from lower courts. TRUE

10. In the eleventh century the Catholic Church underwent several reforms. The Lateran Council of 1059 gave the College of Cardinals complete reign over electing the next pope, a power it still retains. Pope Gregory VII (pontificate 1073-1085) made several reforms including making priests give up their wives and invalidating bought church offices. TRUE
Chapter 15
1. The Renaissance in Italy in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries was characterized by a self-awareness in which people, particularly scholars and humanists, understood themselves as living in a new era driven by a return to classical texts and thinking. TRUE

2. One feature of the Renaissance was a "patronage system" in which individuals, cities, groups, commissioned artists, writers, and other scholars to produce various specific works. TRUE

3. In one of the centers of the Renaissance, the Medici family of bankers held political dominion for centuries in the city-state of Florence, which was officially considered a republic. TRUE

4. One of the primary architects of the Renaissance was Francesco Petrarch, a poet who recognized that the "barbarian invasions" that toppled Rome caused a break in classical, rationalist thinking, an era that Petrarch coined "the Dark Ages." TRUE

5. One of the prevailing sentiments of the Renaissance that germinated among thinkers in northern Europe in the Low Countries, France, Germany, and England, was that the best elements of Christian and classical cultures should be mixed, a concept called "Christian humanism." TRUE

6. According to our authors, the "hierarchy of wealth" that formed during the Renaissance entailed that noble and aristocratic titles were soon scorned by the new people of wealth, who wanted nothing to do with "feckless" aristocracies. FALSE

7. Our authors recognize that, In general, humanists ignored concepts related to gender, relying upon traditional clerical and secular conceptualizations of women as domineering, devious, and demanding. FALSE

8. According to our authors, the increased prestige and stability of the middle class in France and England amid the need for law and order amid the instability of the years following the Hundred Years' War, the War of the Roses, and other civil and regional conflicts, marked the blooming of nascent legal and administrative infrastructures for the modern nation state. TRUE

9. During the Inquisition, "purity of blood" laws were embraced by long-time Christians who were unwilling to accept converted Jews to Christianity. According to these laws, converted Jews could never become real Christians, motivating Isabella Ferdinand to expel 200,000 Jews from Spain. Another 150,000 fled. TRUE

10. The word "Protestant," meaning to protest, originated with a group of reforming German princes in 1529, and came to be used to describe all non-Catholic western Europeans. TRUE