Genetics Fall 2018 Final Kellner

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Which of the following is considered a milestone in the field of genetics?
A. The Human Genome Project
B. The discovery of the rules of inheritance
C. The discovery of the structure of DNA
D. All of these
E. None of these
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Terms in this set (102)
Which of the following is a reason why the daughter cells that result from the process of Meiosis are not genetically identical to the parent cell at the beginning of the process?
1. Crossing over
2. Each homologous chromosome in a pair is inherited from a different parent (i.e. one from mom and one from dad)
3. Each homologue randomly assorts into a daughter cell

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) All of these
e) 2 and 3 only
Which of the following events characterizes metaphase of mitosis?
1. Attachment of spindle fibers to the kinetochores of the chromosomes
2. Movement of chromosomes to the equatorial plane of the cell
3. Separation of sister chromatids that are being pulled to the poles of the cell

a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 1 and 2
e) All of these
Which of the following cellular components is responsible for executing the distribution of chromosomes during the process of mitosis? a) Nucleus b) Mitochondria c) Microtubules d) Chloroplasts e) FlagellaCPrior to mitosis, each chromosome of a eukaryotic cell consists of a pair of identical structures called A) chromatin. B) sister chromosomes. C) nucleoli. D) sister chromatids.DTwo chromosomes in a nucleus that carry genes controlling the same inherited characteristics are A) homologous chromosomes. B) heterologous chromosomes. C) complementary chromosomes. D) parallel chromosomes.A14) What is the final product of mitosis? A) sperm and egg cells B) two daughter cells identical to the parent cell C) 4 daughter cells identical to the parent D) 2 daughter cells not identical to the parent cell E) 3 brother cellsB15) Which of the following is a phase that occurs during mitosis? A)G1 phase B) S phase C) Prophase D) G2 phase E) MeiosisC16) You play cards with your friends. If you want to calculate the probability of having all four aces on your hand (ace of hearts, ace of spades, ace of clubs, and ace of diamonds) you would use A) the additive rule B) the multiplication rule C) the subtraction rule D) subtraction and multiplication ruleB17) How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n= 8)? A) 2 B) 4 C) 8 D) 16 E) 32D18) Which of the following types of cells would be produced by meiosis? A) a haploid animal cell B) a diploid animal cell C) a diploid plant cell D) a diploid unicellular organismA19) Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. What does this suggest? A) that the parents were true-breeding for contrasting traits B) that the trait shows incomplete dominanceThis is the second question I curved. C) that a blending of traits has occurred D) that the parents were both heterozygous for a single traitE) that each offspring has the same alleles for each of two traitsD20) A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which combination of the following is possible in a gamete from this organism? A) tt B) Hh C) HhTt D) T E) HTE21) In certain plants, the tall trait(T)is dominant to the short trait(t). If a heterozygous plant (Tt) is crossed with a homozygous tall plant(TT), what is the probability that the offspring will be short(tt)? A) 1 B) 1/2 C) 1/4 D) 1/6 E) 0E22) In the cross AaBbCc× AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC? A) 1/4 B) 1/8 C) 1/16 D) 1/32 E) 1/64E23) Which of the following calculations require that you utilize the addition rule(sum rule)? A) Calculate the probability of black offspring from the cross AaBb× AaBb, when Bis the symbol for black. B) Calculate the probability of children with both cystic fibrosis and polydactyly when parents are each heterozygous for both genes. C) Calculate the probability of each of four children having cystic fibrosis if the parents are both heterozygous. D) Calculate the probability of a child having either sickle-cell anemia or cystic fibrosis if parents are each heterozygous for both.D24) An organism that inherits two different alleles for a single trait, one from its mother and one from its father is known as a(n): a) Homozygote b) Homosapiens c) Heterozygote d) Allelic variation e) Blended individualC25) The principle of segregation states that: a) In a heterozygote, two different alleles separate from each other during the formation of gametes. b) In a heterozygote, two of the same alleles separate from each other during the formation of gametes. c) In a heterozygote, two different alleles do not separate from each other during the formation of gametes. d) In a heterozygote, two of the same alleles do not separate from each other during the formation of gametes.e) None of theseA26) In a plant that has the genotype TtRRyy, what fraction of the gametes will have this combination T-R-y? a) 1/2 b) 1/4 c) 1/8 d) 1/16A27) The degrees of freedom associated with a chi-square test is equal to: a) The number of data categories minus one. b) The number of data categories divided by one. c) The number of data categories plus one. d) The number of measurements minus one. e) The number of measurements plus one.A28) You perform a dihybrid cross between two plants that have traits expressing a simple dominance relationship. Then, you self the F1generation and analyze the progeny. How many degrees of freedom do you have for your chi-square test? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 e) 5C29) Why has progress studying the genetic traits of human beings been slow? a) It is impossible to make controlled crosses with human beings b) Valid family records are difficult to obtain, and would be essential for study validity. c) Human beings do not typically produce large numbers of progeny d) All of these e) None of theseD30) Assuming only one gene pair is involved, what is the inheritance pattern? a) dominant b) recessive c) cannot be inferredB31) Consider the pedigree above.What is the genotype of the individual marked with the arrow? a) AA b) aa c) Aa d) AA or Aa both possible e) cannot be inferredC32) In tomatoes, red fruit color is dominant (Y) and yellow is recessive (y). A red-fruited plant, when crossed with a yellow-fruited plant, produces offspring about half of which are yellow-fruited and half of which are red-fruited. What are the genotypes of the parents? a) YY and yy b) Yy and yy c) Yy and Yy d) yy and yyB33) In the chi-square test, a critical value is: a) the point where the discrepancies between observed and expected numbers are not likely to be due to chance. b) the point where the difference between observed and expected is attributed solely to chance. c) the point where there is no discrepancy between observed and expected numbers. d) All of these e) None of theseAMendel decides he wants to save some time and do one large experiment. He sets up a self-cross of a plant with the genotype Tt Rr Yy Pp Ii Gg Aa. How many squares would you need to make a Punnett square large enough to account for all of the potential offspring? a) 256 b) 1024 c) 16384 d) 65536C1) Imagine that beak color in a finch species is controlled by a single gene. You mate a finch homozygous for orange beak with a finch homozygous for ivory beak and get numerous offspring, all of which have a pale orange beak. This pattern of color expression is most likely to be an example of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance.AA person with AB blood type illustrates the principle of A) incomplete dominance. B) codominance. C) pleiotropy. D) polygenic inheritance.BWhich of the following terms refers to a situation where a single phenotypic character(like skin color)is determined by the additive effects of two or more genes? A) incomplete dominance B) codominance C) pleiotropy D) polygenic inheritanceDThe chromosome theory of inheritance states that A) chromosomes that exhibit mutations are the source of genetic variation. B) the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis and fertilization accounts for patterns of inheritance. C) the behavior of chromosomes during mitosis accounts for inheritance patterns. D) humans have 46 chromosomes.BA man with type B blood and a woman with type A blood could have children of which of the following phenotypes? A) A, B, or O B) AB only C) AB or O D) A, B, AB, or ODGenes located close together on the same chromosomes are referred to as ________ genes and generally ________. A) linked . . . sort independently during meiosis B) homologous . . . are inherited together C) linked . . . do not sort independently during meiosis D) codependent. . . do not sort independently during meiosisCThe mechanism that "breaks" the linkage between linked genes is A) pleiotropy. B) codominance. C) independent assortment. D) crossing over.DYou conduct a dihybrid cross. A ________ ratio would make you suspect that the genes are linked. A) 3:1 B) 1:1:1:1 C) 12:1:1:4 D) 9:3:3:1CSex-linked conditions are more common in men than in women because A) men acquire two copies of the defective gene during fertilization. B) men need to inherit only one copy of the recessive allele for the condition to be fully expressed. C) the sex chromosomes are more active in men than in women. D) the genes associated with the sex-linked conditions are linked to the Y chromosome, which determines maleness.BIf your dad was color blind, and your mom was homozygous wild type, then: a) your grandma on your dad's side carried at least one copy of the color blind mutation. b) your grandfather on your mom's side carried two copies of the color blind mutation. c) if you are a boy you must be color blind (100% chance), because you got it from your dad. d) if you are a girl you must be color blind (100% chance), because you got it from your mom. e) if you are a girl, you don't have to worry about passing the color blind mutation to your children, because you are not a carrier.AThe centimorgan (cM) is a unit named in honor of Thomas Hunt Morgan. To what is it equal? A) the physical distance between two linked genes B) 1% frequency of recombination between two genes C) 1 nanometer of distance between two genes D) the distance between a pair of homologous chromosomes E) the recombination frequency between two genes assorting independentlyBAn organism's standard chromosome number (n) is known as the ________ number. a) Haploid b) Diploid c) Aneuploid d) Polyploid e) TetraploidAA ________ is one whose expression is influenced by some environmental condition. A) X-linked allele B) conditional mutant C) positional effect D) multiple allele E) expressive alleleBA heterozygous (w+/ w) red-eyed Drosophila female is crossed with a white-eyed male(white is a recessive mutation). Assuming the trait for eye color is sex-linked, what are the possible phenotypes of the progeny? a) All red-eyed individuals b) Red-and white-eyed females and males c) Red-eyed females and white-eyed males d) Both red-and white-eyed males and only white-eyed females e) None of theseBIn humans the Y chromosome carries _________ genes than the X chromosome. a) Fewer b) More c) Similar d) All of these e) None of theseAA mutation in a gene often results in a reduction of the product of that gene. The term for this type of mutation is ________. A) codominance B) incomplete dominance C) gain of function D) multiple allelism E) loss of function or null (in the case of complete loss)EWhat is the most prevalent form of an allele called? A) normal B) dominant C) recessive D) wild type E) neutralDA situation in which there are more than two alternative forms of a given gene would be called ________. A) multiple alleles B) alternation of generations C) codominance D) incomplete dominance E) hemizygosityABecause of the mechanism of sex determination, males of many species can be neither homozygous nor heterozygous. Such males are said to be ________. A) dominant B) hemizygous C) recessive D) complementary E) None of the answers listed are correct.BName three modes of inheritance that are influenced by the sex of individuals. A) X-linked, sex-influenced, sex-limited B) sex-influenced, epistasis, sex-limited C) conditional alleles, sex-limited, X-linked D) epistasis, conditional alleles, expressivity E) penetrance, X-limited inheritance, X-linked inheritanceAA small part of the human Y chromosome contains the gene that is responsible for determining maleness. What is the name of this gene? A) medulla B) SRY C) Xist D) Dax E) NRYBWhich region(s) of the X chromosome recombine during meiosis? A) the pseudoautosomal regions B) the heterochromain C) the centromere D) the male-specific region of the Y E) SRYAA frequency of recombination that is less than 50% implies: a) The genes are linked on the same chromosome b) The genes are linked on different chromosomes c) The genes are not linked and are on different chromosomes d) The genes assort independently e) The genes are not linked and are on the same chromosomeAWhy doesn't an exchange between sister chromatids result in the production of a recombinant? a) Sister chromatids are genetically identical and therefore an exchange would not show any change in phenotype b) Sister chromatids are not genetically identical and therefore cannot exchange information c) Sister chromatids are genetically identical and therefore cannot exchange information d) Sister chromatids are not genetically identical and therefore an exchange would not show any change in phenotype e) None of these explains thisAThe distance between two points on the genetic map of a chromosome is equal to: a) The exact number of crossovers between them as measured in one cell b) The estimated number of crossovers between them as measured in one cell c) The average number of crossovers between them d) None of these e) All of theseCAssume that a man who carries an X-linked gene has children. Assuming normal meiosis and random combination of gametes, the man would pass this gene to ________. A) half of his daughters B) all of his daughters C) all of his sons D) half of his sons E) all of his childrenBGenotypic sex determination is not the case in many species of ________. A) flies B) round worms C) mammals D) birds E) reptilesEIn a three-point mapping experiment, how many different genotypic classes are expected? A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 4 E) 8EWhat is a homogametic sex? a) the sex in which the two gametes are the same, such as the human female with two X chromosomes b) the sex in which most of the genes are in the heterozygous form c) the male sex in all species d) the female sex in all species e) the sex in which the two gametes are different, such as the human male with an X and Y chromosomeAWhich of the following is a genetic mosaic? a) wild type Drosophila male (XY male) b) wild type human male (XY male) c) wild type human female (XX female) d) wild type Drosophila female (XX female) e) the heterozygoteCWhat are the variation effects of mutations? A. Visible mutations, Sterile mutations, Lethal mutations B. Poly mutations, Tetra mutations, Hexi mutations C. Lobe Eye Mutation D. None the aboveAThe frequency that is often used to measure the degree of linkage between genes is known as the: a) Linkage frequency b) Recombination frequency c) Hardy-Weinberg frequency d) Genetic frequency e) Meiosis frequencyBFirst, you mate blue-flowered, short-stalked plants (++++) and white-flowered, long-stalked plant (ffss). The resulting F1 offspring (++fs) are also crossed to produce the following F2 progeny: 400 blue, short 400 white, long 100 blue, long 100 white, short What is the recombination frequency, as shown in the F2 generation? a) 0.25 b) .20 c) .08 d) .10 e) .05BCarbon Copy was the first successful attempt in cloning a cat.An ovarian cell was taken from a donor cat (the "Mom") and the diploid nucleus of that cell was inserted into an empty egg cell. The resulting zygote was allowed to develop into an embryo in vitro, and then implanted in the uterus of a surrogate mother cat, which gave birth to a healthy kitten. Carbon Copy's Mom was a Calico cat, and Carbon Copy turned out to be Calico as well.Would you expect Carbon Copy to be an identical looking clone of her "Mom"?Carbon Copy does not look identical to her Mom!Reason 1: Phenotypes are always influenced by the environment to a certain extent (diet, exercise, etc) Reason 2: The question actually referred to the black and orange patches: CC has different patches than the tortieshell Mom.The random inactivation of one X chromosome happens during embryonic development and results in some fur patches being black others orange.Which large organic molecules are essential chromosome components? a) Lipids and proteins b) Proteins and nucleic acids c)Nucleic acids and polysaccharides d) Proteins and polysaccharidesBIn Sia and Dawson's 1931 experiment, a) Mice were required to demonstrate the transforming principle b) Used serum to precipitate IIIS cells from a mixture of heat-killed IIIS and living IIR cells c) They showed that the mouse hosts play no direct role in the transforming principle d) Heat-killed IIR cells mixed with living IIIS cells gave rise to IIR colonies e) None of theseCWhose experiments provided direct evidence indicating that DNA, rather than RNA or protein, is the genetic material in bacteriophages? a) Griffith b) Avery, McLeod, and McCarty c) Hershey and Chase d) Watson and Crick e) Sia and DawsonCRNA was first identified as the genetic material of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through an experiment in which: a) Protein and nucleic acid were radioactively labeled b) Protein, RNA, and DNA were digested using various enzymes c) The protein coats and RNA from two distinctive TMV strains were exchanged d) RNA underwent CsCl density-dependent centrifugation e) None of theseCWhich of the following is true regarding the structure of DNA? a) Double stranded molecule b) Single stranded molecule c) Composed of nucleotides d) Double stranded molecule and Composed of nucleotides e) Single stranded molecule and Composed of nucleotidesDThe condition that exists when an organism gains or loses one or more chromosomes but not a complete haploid set is known as ________. A) polyploidy B) euploidy C)aneuploidy D) triploidy E) trisomyCDNA extracted from a cheek cell contains16% cytosine. What percentage content of adenine would you expect to find? a) 16 b) 32 c) 68 d) 34 e)Not enough information present to calculate % of ADWhat kind of data on DNA structure was gathered by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins? a) 3D model b) Base composition data c) X-ray diffraction pattern data d) All of these e) None of theseCWhich class of proteins is associated with DNA in chromatin? a) Histones b) Non-histone chromosomal proteins c) Enzymes d) Histones and non-histone chromosomal proteins e) All of theseDThe functions associated with telomeres are to: a) Prevent ribonucleases from degrading the ends of linear RNA primer molecules b) Allow the fusion of broken chromosomal ends c) Facilitate replication of chromosomes without the loss of the chromosome's arms tips d) Ensure the appropriate segregation of chromosomes e) Provide chromosomal anchorage to spindle-fibersCWhat explanation is generally given for lethality of monosomic individuals? A) Monosomy may unmask recessive lethals that are tolerated in heterozygotes carrying the wild-type allele. B) The gametes of monosomic individuals cannot undergo meiosis, and this is lethal. C) Cells count the number of chromosomes they have and will undergo apoptosis when the chromosome number is incorrect. D) Monosomic chromosomes cannot undergo mitosis correctly. E) The loss of a single chromosome is not generally lethal, unless the individual is inbred.AMeselson and Stahl are best known for demonstrating that: a) DNA replication occurs in a conservative manner in E. coli b) DNA replication occurs in a semi-conservative manner in E. coli c) DNA replication occurs in a conservative manner in eukaryotes d) DNA replication occurs in a semi-conservative manner in eukaryotes e) None of theseBA replication bubble is: a) A localized region of DNA strand separation b) A localized region of RNA strand separation c) A localized region of DNA strand attachment d) All of these e) None of theseAWhat is the leading cause of Down syndrome? A) In older females, chromosome 21 is duplicated leading to abnormal egg formation. B) In older parents, there is egg/sperm incompatibility leading to duplication of chromosome 21. C) Aberrant implantation in the uterus leads to developmental problems in the fetus. D) The nondisjunctional event that produces Down syndrome occurs more frequently during oogenesis in women older than age 35. E) In men over 25, sperm formation is impaired and produces monosomic children.DWhich of the following enzymes catalyzes DNA synthesis? a) DNA ligase b) DNA helicase c) DNA polymerase d) DNA gyrase e) None of theseCWhen a bacteriophage genome incorporates itself into the chromosome of the host, that phage genome is referred to as a(n) ________. A) lytic phage B) T4 phage C) temperate phage D) prophage E) episomeDThe activity of ________ would be quickly undone in the absence of single-stranded binding protein. A) DNA polymerase I B) DNA polymerase III C) primase D) DNA ligase E) DNA helicaseEThe RNA containing enzyme that participates in the addition of the telomeric ends of the chromosome is known as: a)Replicase b) Gyrase c) Telomerase d) Ligase e) Polymerase VCWhat is meant by the description "antiparallel" regarding the strands that make up DNA? A) The twisting nature of DNA creates nonparallel strands. B) The 5' to 3' direction of one strand runs counter to the 5' to 3' direction of the other strand. C) Base pairings create unequal spacing between the two DNA strands. D) One strand is positively charged and the other is negatively charged. E) One strand contains only purines and the other contains only pyrimidines.BWhat is the function of topoisomerase? A) relieving twisting tension in the DNA ahead of the replication fork B) elongating new DNA at a replication fork by adding nucleotides to the existing chain C) adding methyl groups to bases of DNA D) unwinding of the double helix E) stabilizing single-stranded DNA at the replication forkAJacob, Wollman, and others developed a linkage map of E. coli that is based on time. What form of recombination is involved in generating a linkage map based on time? A) adaptation B) conjugation C) transformation D) transduction E) time of transferBThe chromosomal aberration that causes cri-du-chat syndrome can be referred to as a(n) ________. A) duplication B) inversion C) reciprocal translocation D) simple translocation E) segmental deletionEAlthough the most frequent forms of Down syndrome are caused by a random error, nondisjunction of chromosome 21, Down syndrome occasionally runs in families. The cause of this form of familial Down syndrome is ________. A) an inversion involving chromosome 21 B) a chromosomal aberration involving chromosome 1 C) too many X chromosomes D) a translocation involving chromosome 21 and another chromosomeDWhen mapping genes in bacteria, which of the following is true about the interrupted mating technique? A) Time of contact is not applicable to this protocol. B) Donor will pass only beneficial genes to the recipient. C) Genes will be passed from the centromere. D) Genes are transferred from the donor to recipient in a linear fashion based upon time of contact. E) The recipient bacterium will choose the best genes.DWhen one DNA molecule is copied to make two DNA molecules, the new DNA contains A) none of the parent DNA. B) 50%of the parent DNA. C) 75% of the parent DNA. D) 100% of the parent DNABWhat is an R plasmid? A) They function in bacterial recombination. B) They are the plasmids that carry the F factor. C) They are a plasmid that can exist in the chromosome or outside the chromosome. D) They carry a gene for resistance, and genes for the transfer of the plasmid. E) It is an F factor that has picked up part of a bacterial genome.DWhat type of bonds holds the base pairs of DNA together? a) ionic b) covalent c) hydrogen d) phosphodiester e) none of the aboveCHow do different strains of E. coli can reveal different linkage arrangements of genes in Hfr crosses? A) They do not. All Hfr strains are identical. B) Hfr strains will demonstrate different areas of recombination, due to dominance and recessiveness of genes. C) Different strains may have different F factors and therefore different initiation points for chromosome transfer. D) In different Hfr strains, genes can be in different order on the chromosome. E) In different Hfr strains, different genes will be transferred based on where the centromere resides.CBacteria that are in a particular physiological state to become transformed are called ________. A) episomal B) resistant C) temperate D) competent E) transformableDWhich of the following best illustrates the central dogma of biology? a) DNA→Protein→RNA b) RNA→DNA→Protein c) DNA→DNA→Protein d) DNA→RNA→Protein e) Protein→RNA→DNADWhat is the basis for the difference in how the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules are synthesized? A) The origins of replication occur only at the 5' end. B) Helicases and single-strand binding proteins work at the 5' end. C) DNA polymerase can join new nucleotides only to the 3' end of a growing strand. D) DNA ligase works only in the 3' → 5' direction. E) Polymerase can work on only one strand at a time.CFunctional DNA molecules in living cells are: A. Coiled B. Supercoiled C. Negatively supercoiled D. Positively supercoiled E. Neutral supercoiledCBacteriophages engage in two interactive cycles with bacteria. What are these cycles? A) lytic and lysogenic B) insertion and replication C) auxotrophic and prototrophic D) heteroduplex and homoduplex E) negative and positiveAFor a science fair project, two students decided to repeat the Hershey and Chase experiment, with modifications. They decided to label the nitrogen of the DNA, rather than the phosphate. They reasoned that each nucleotide has only one phosphate and two to five nitrogen atoms. Thus, labeling nitrogen would provide a stronger signal than labeling the phosphates. Why won't this experiment work? A) There is no radioactive isotope of nitrogen. B) Radioactive nitrogen has a half-life of 100,000 years, and the material would be too dangerous for too long. C) Avery et al. have already concluded that this experiment showed inconclusive results. D) Although there are more nitrogens in a nucleotide, labeled phosphates actually have 16 extra neutrons; therefore, they are more radioactive. E) Amino acids (and thus proteins) also have nitrogen atoms; thus, the radioactivity would not distinguish between DNA and proteins.E