Psych Ch.6

associative learning
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Terms in this set (67)
unconditioned responsean innate reflex response elicited by an unconditioned stimulusneutral stimulusa stimulus that does not evoke response.conditioned stimulusa stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus.conditioned responsea learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulusacquisitionthe period in conditioning during which a response is reinforcedrespondent reinforcementreinforcement that occurs when an unconditioned stimulus closely follows a conditioned stimulushigher order conditioningclassical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS is used as if it were a US.informational reviewperspective that explains learning in terms of information imparted events in the environmentexpectancyan anticipation concerning future events or relationshipsextinctionthe weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcementspontaneous recoverythe reappearence of a learned response after its a apparent extinctionstimulus generalizationthe tendency to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulusstimulus discriminationthe learned ability to respond differently to similar stimuliconditioned emotional responsean emotional response that has been linked to a previoulsy nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioningvicarious classical conditioningclassical conditioning brought about by observing another person react to a particular stimulusoperant conditioninglearning based on the consequences of respondinglaw of effectresponses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not.operant reinforcerany event that reliably increases the probability or frequency of responses it followsresponse chainingthe assembly of a seperate responses into a series of actions that lead to reinforcementsuperstitious behaviora behavior repeated because it seems to produce reinforcement, even though it is actually unnecessaryshapinggradually molding responces to a final desired patternoperant extinctionthe weakening or disappereance of a nonreinforced operant responsepostitive reinforcementoccurs when a response is followed by a reward of other positive eventnegative reinforcementoccurs when a response is followed by an end to discomfort or by the removal of an unpleasant eventpunishmentany event that follows a reponse and decreases its likelihood of occuring againresponse costremoval of a positive reinforcer after a response is madeprimary reinforcersnonlearned reinforcers; usually those that satisfies physiological needssecondary reinforcera learned reinforcer;often one that gains reinforcing properties by association with a primary reinforcertoken reinforcera tangible secondary reinforcer such as money, gold stars, poker chips, and the reinforcerreinforcement based on recieving attention, approval, or affection from another personfeedbackinformation returned to a person about the effects a response has had;also known as knowledge of results.knowledge of resultsinformational feedbackprogrammed instructionany learning format that presents information in small amounts, gives immediate practice, and provides continous feedback to learnerspartial reinforcementa pattern in which only a portion of all responses are reinforcedpartical reinforcement effectresponses acquired with partial reinforcement are more resistant to extinctionschedule of reinforcementa rule or plan for determining which responses will be reinforcedfixed ratio schedulea set number of correct repsonses must be made to get a reinforcer. for example, a reinforcer is given for every four correct responsesvariable ratio schedulea varied number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. for example, a reinforcer is given after every three to seven correct responses; the actual number changes randomlyfixed interval schedulea reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passes since the last reinforced response. responses made during the time interval are not reinforced.variable interval schedulea reinforcer is given for the first correct response made after a varied amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. responses made during the time interval are not reinforcedstimulus controlstimuli present when an operant response is aquired tend to control when and where the response is madeopernant stimulus generalizationthe tendency to respond to stimuli similar to those that preceded operant reinforcementopernant stimulus discriminationthe tendency to make an operant response when stimuli previously associated with reward are present and to withhold the response when stimuli associated with nonreward are presentdiscriminative stimulistimuli that precede rewarded and nonrewarded responses in operant conditioningpunishmentthe process of supressing a responsepunisherany event that decreases the probability or frequency of responses it followsescape learninglearning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulusavoidance learninglearning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfortcognitive learninghigher level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipationcognitive mapinternal images of other mental representations of an area (maze, city, campus, and so forth) that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goallatent learninglearning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is providedrote learninglearning that takes place mechanically, through repitition and memorization, or by learning rulesdiscovery learninglearning based on insight and understandingobservational learninglearning achieved by watching and imitation the actions of another or noting the consequences of those actionsmodela person who serves as an example in observational learningself-recordingself-management based on keeping records of responses frequenciesbehavioral contracta formal agreement stating behaviors to be changed and consequences that apply