54 terms

Agriculture-AP Human Geography


Terms in this set (...)

Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Agricultural hearths
Places where agriculture first developed and originated.
The art and science of producing food from the land and tending livestock for the purpose of human consumption
Animal Domestication
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
use of river segments or artificial bodies of water such as ponds for the raising and harvesting of food products
Bio technology and GMO's
Using living organisms in a useful way to produce commercial products like pest resistant crops.
Commercial Agriculture
The production primarily for sale off of the farm
Intensive Commercial agriculture
yields a large amount of output per acre through concentrated application of labor and/or capital usually to small holdings
Extensive commercial agriculture
yields a much smaller output per acre as farmers spread their labor and capital over large areas of land.
crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year,to avoid exhausting the soil.
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock for dairy products
Double cropping
The process of having two harvests every year from the same field
Primary economic activity
economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment
Second economic activity
economic activity involving the processing of raw materials into finished industrial products, the manufacturing sector
tertiary economic activity
economic activity associated with the provision of services
Quaternary economic activity
service sector industries concerned with collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital
Quinary economic activity
service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge skill
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the human plants but kill plants that have a negative repercussion on the species that ingest the chemicals
Soil erosion
Movement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind, flowing water, or both.
the process by which formally fertile lands become increasingly arid,unproductive and desertlike.
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
artifical watering of farmland
wetland destruction
when wetlands are disturbed, harmed, drained, or filled in by pollution
extensive subsistence agriculture
An agricultural production system that uses small inputs of hand labor, fertilizers, and capital, relative to the land area being farmed.
Shifting cultivation[slash and burn]
a type of agriculture where farmers cut the undergrowth and smaller trees than burn what is the left.
Nomadic herding/pastoralism
on the move people that live with animals and sell their products to buy grain which they eat-usually practiced in dry areas.
a building where livestock are fattened for market
First agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
the science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests
Green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology,especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
Growing season
the part of the year during which rainfall and temperature allow plants to grow.
hunting and gathering
people who survive by eating animals that they have caught or plants they have gathered
intensive subsistence agriculture
a form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expand a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum sufficient harvest froma parcel of land
livestock ranching
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
market gardening
small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants.
Mediterranean Agriculture
specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
plant domestication
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
plantation agriculture
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
Carl O. Sauer
geographer,possiblilst, that believed there were two types of plant cultivation
Second agricultural revolution
1600s-1800s/increase in food production/tools were modified/ urbanization/ happened alongside the industrial revolution
staple grains
Foods eaten regularly or in such quantities as to constitute the dominant part of the diet and supply a major proportion of energy and nutrients
Third agricultural revolution
dates as far back as the 1930s when scientists in the American midwest manipulated seed varieties/ success is debated
Truck farming
commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was an english word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities
Industrial Agriculture
modern farming that refers to the industrialized production of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops.
vegetative planting
The reproduction of plants by direct cloning from existing plants.
seed planting
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
milk shed
the circle around a dairy farm in which its products can be sold without spoiling
growing of fruits/vegetables/flowers for commercial use.
Luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Von Thuenen's model
a model that explains the location of agricultureal activities in a commercial, profit-making economy- rings around a city,
Biotechnological revolution
genetic engineering technology of the 21st century
dependence on a single agricultural commodities
sustainable agriculture
Farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution,typically by rotating soil-resortign crops with cash crops and reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides.
organic agriculture
the production of crops and animals-naturally- without chemicals and hormones