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The Chemistry of Life
Terms in this set (36)
What elements make up all organic compounds?
Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen
What are the four macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids, and Protein
Describe the structure of glucose.
The formula is C6 H12 O6
Glucose is in a hexagonal shape with 6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 6 oxygen
Distringuish between a saturated fat and an unsatuarated fat.
Saturated fat: Fatty acids that contain the max possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated fat: there is atleast one carbon-carbon double bond.
What role do enzymes play in living things and what affects their function?
Enzymes lover the activation energy in our body, maintain a homeostasis, and speeds up chemical reactions.And temperature and the pH leve.
What are the factors that effect enzyme activity?
The temperature and pH level; when one of these change, it disforms the enzyme and causes the enzyme to no longer be able to function correctly.
Explain the relationship between an enzyme and activation energy.
The enzyme catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy necessary for a reaction to occur in our bodies.
Steps in the Scientific Methodology
2-Having a question or problem
5- making more observations and collecting data
6- analying the data
Types of data you collect
Quantitative Data: Obtained by counting and measuring
Qualitative Data: Descriptive with characteristics
Variables in a controlled experiment
Independent Variable: Deliberately change this variable in an experiment.
Dependent Variable: this variable is observed and changed because of the variable. (dependent on the independent)
Name the 8 Characteristics of Living organisms
1-made up of DNA
2- grow and develop
3-respond to their environment
5- maintain a relatively stable internal environment
6-Obtain and use materials and energy to grow,develop, and reproduce.
7- made up of 1 or more cells
8- evolve or change over time
the smaller units that join together to form polymers
6 Carbon, 12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen
made up of smaller units (monomers)
single sugar molecules; mono = single
any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
the large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides
Compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents
Amino Acids- compounds with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end
constits of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group (-PO4) and a nitrogenous base.
The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
The elements or compounds produced by chemical raction
The energy that is needed to get a chemical reaction started
a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
The substrates bind to a site on the enzyme In order to get a reaction the substance and the active site on the enzyme have to fit together
The reactants of enzyme-catalysed reaction
Atoms Needed: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Structure/Shape: Carbohydrates are in a hexagonal shap. C6, H12, O6
Uses in Living things: Main Source of Energy
Monomer ex. : Monosaccahrides:Glucose, Galactose, Fructose, and Slucose.
Polymer ex. : Polysaccarides: Glycogen (animal strach), cellulose (plant)
Lipids (fats,oils, waxes)
Atoms Needed: Carbon and Hydrogen
Structure/Shape: Saturated fat: max number possible of hydrogen atoms: Chain forms
Unsaturated Fat: atleast 1 carbon-carbon double bond
Uses in Living things: used to store energy, water proof coverings, and used to make up biological membrates (celluar)
Monomer ex. : Glycerol; fatty acid chains
Polymer ex. : Saturated; Unsaturated
Atoms Needed: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon, and Phosphorus
Structure/Shape: Neucleotide Structure; Scarbon Sugar; 5-Carbon Sugar
Uses in Living things:Store and transmit hereditary or genetic information.
Monomer ex. : 5-carbon sugar; Phosplate group; Nitrogen Base
Polymer ex. : DNA; RNA
Atoms Needed: Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
Structure/Shape: 4 levels: 1- sequence of its amino acids
2-folding or coiling of polypeptide chain
3- complete 3-D arrangement
Uses in Living things: controls rate of reactions & regulates cell process. Forms important cell structure; transport substances into or out of cells to help to fight disease.
Monomer ex. : Amino; Hydrogen; Carboxyl; R-group (make up amino acids)
Polymer ex. : Proteins; enzymes
Hypothesis v.s Theory
Theory: A hypothesis that is supported by many observations and investigations (over a long period of time)
Hypothesis: is an educated guess that has not yet been proven
Relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain.
Properties of an Atom
Protons:+ charge; inside the nucleus
Electrons: - charge; constantly in motion around the outside of the nucleus
Nuetrons: carry no charge; inside the nucleus
Covalent and Ionic Bonds
Ionic Bonds: formed when one or more electrons are transferred from on atom to another
Covalent Bonds: The moving electrons actually travel about the nuclei of both atoms, forming a covalent bond.
Properties of Water
Hydrogen bonding: Cohesion: an attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion: an attraction between molecules of different substances.
Water is a solvent( the substance in which the solute dissloves)
Water is polar (share electrons unequally)
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