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COMPREHENSIVE EXAM PHYSIOLOGY 1 + 2

Terms in this set (73)

1.Respiratory acidosis = increased CO2
Compensate with metabolic alkalosis
Causes:
○ Anything causing hypoventilation
○ COPD- decreased breathing
○ Sleep apnea
○ ALS
○ Diaphragm weakness
○ Opiates
○ Barbituates
○ Muscle or neural weakness

2. Respiratory alkalosis = decreases CO2
compensate with metabolic acidosis
Causes:
○ Anything causing hyperventilation
○ Hypoxia
○ Pain
○ Fever
○ Anxiety
○ Anemia
○ Acidosis
○ Salicylates
____________________

3. Metabolic acidosis = low bicarbonate HCO3-
compensated with respiratory alkalosis(HYPERVENTILATION)
Excess production of acid
Diabetic ketoacidosis
● Insufficient insulin, insufficient glucose intake
● Metabolize free fatty acids, increase ketoacid production (beta-OH-butyric acid
and acetoacetic acid)

Lactic acidosis
● Any form of hypoperfusion/anaerobic metabolism
● Exercise
● Sepsis, shock

Salicylates
● Aspirin overdose - ANION GAP
● Poisons mitochondria
● Lose oxidative phosphorylation, adds lactate
● Directly stimulates breathing, so TWO primary disorders - Met. Acid. AND Resp.
Alk.
Methanol
● Metabolized to form formaldehyde and formic acid
● Retinal toxicity - blindness
Ethylene glycol
● Anti-freeze
● Metabolized to oxalic acid
● Crystals and stones in urine

○ Loss of HCO3-
Diarrhea
● HCO3-, K+ secreted
● Cl- absorption increases
● NO NET CHANGE IN ANIONS - NORMAL ANION GAP

Proximal (type 2) Renal Tubular Acidosis
● Can't absorb HCO3-
● Cl- absorption increases
● NO NET CHANGE IN ANIONS - NORMAL ANION GAP

Can't excrete acid (H+)

4. Metabolic alkalosis = high bicarbonate HCO3-
Compensate with respiratory acidosis
● Causes:
○ Vomiting
■ Lose gastric H+

○ Hyperaldosteronism
i.e. Cushing's
Excrete H+

○ Diuretics
■ i.e. Bartters syndrome

○ Hypokalemia
Liquid antacids
Low K+, H+ in to maintain neutrality