Unit 4 Exam (Anatomy and Physiology)

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List the organs of the urinary system and give their basic functions.
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Terms in this set (51)
Kidney: Removes waste from the blood through the nephrons. Then drains the waste into the renal pelvis.
Renal pelvis: A large cavity in the kidney that collects the urine as it is produced. Then drains the urine into the ureters.
Ureters: Narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Bladder: Holds urine for excretion. Walls of the bladder relax and expand to store urine, and contract and flatten to empty urine.
Urethra: A tube that allows urine to pass outside the body.
ADH (secreted by hypothalamus through plasma osmolarity): causes the kidneys to release less water (decreases urine produced); cause blood vessels to constrict (increase BP)
ANP (secreted by cardiac muscle cells in the atria through a potent vasoconstrictor, endothelin): vasodilation of afferent arteriole of the glomerulus = increased renal blood flow = increased filtration = increased excretion of water; decreases atrial BP
Aldosterone (secreted by the outer layer adrenal cortex through a drop in blood volume/increase in potassium ion concentration): increase sodium reabsorption retains excess fluid = decreased urine excretion; restoration of salt levels in the blood increases its volume (increases BP)
Describe the basic function of the glomerular capsule, PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, and collecting duct.Glomerular capsule performs the first step of filtration of blood to urine. PCT reabsorbs most of the filtered Na+ ions. The loop of henle is to recover the water and sodium chloride from the urine. DCT regulates potassium, sodium, calcium, and pH. The collecting duct transports the urine from the nephron to the renal pelvis/ureters.What structure reabsorbs most of the glomerular filtrate?Proximal convoluted tubuleWhat structures are located in the renal medulla?Renal pyramids, renal columns, collecting ducts, nephron loop, vasa recta, and the interstitium.Describe the general structure of a kidney using the following terms: renal capsule, cortex, medulla, medullary pyramid, major and minor calyx, pelvis, hilum.Renal capsule: thin membranous sheath that covers the outer surface of each kidney. Renal cortex: outer part of the kidney containing the glomerulus and convoluted tubules. Renal medulla: consists of a series of renal pyramids and renal columns. Medullary pyramids: consists of tubules that transport urine from the outer part to the calyces. Minor calyx: surrounds the renal papillae of each pyramid which collect urine from the pyramids. Major calyx: many minor calyces flow into a major calyx, then urine flows into the renal pelvis. Renal pelvis: large cavity that collects urine as it is produced. Renal hilum: entry and exit site for blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters.Compare plasma, glomerular filtrate, and urine.Plasma: pale yellow fluid portion of the blood (before filtration) Glomerular filtrate: filtered plasma that does not contain blood cells, proteins, or other large molecules (fluid in the lumen of the bowman's capsule) Urine: nitrogenous liquid formed by the rest of the nephron.Explain the roles of glomerular hydrostatic pressure, capsular hydrostatic pressure, and glomerular capillary osmotic pressure in glomerular filtration. Which of these forces favors filtration? Which opposes filtration?GHP forces fluid out of the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule, CHP is a back-pressure that opposes filtration, GCOP is the driving force of filtration (opposed by hydrostatic pressure)What is secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells? What causes this to be secreted?Hormone renin, reduction in renal blood flow, blood loss, hypotension of the kidneys, and sodium loss in urine.What structures make up the renal corpuscle?Consists of the glomerulus surrounded by a doubled wall capsule (bowman's capules) that opens into a tubule.Define the following: pyuria, hematuria, glycosuria, proteinuria.Pyuria: increased presence of white blood cells in urine. Hematuria: increased presence of red blood cells. Glycosuria: increased presence of glucose in the urine. Proteinuria: increased presence of protein in the urine.Name and describe 4 processes of urine formation.Filtration (mass water/solute movement from plasma to renal tubules in the renal corpuscle - 180 L fluid filtered daily), Reabsorption (), Secretion, Excretion -What is the detrusor muscle? Where is it located? What is its function?Located within the walls of the bladder that is composed of smooth muscle fibers. Function is to contract during urination to push the urine out of the bladder and into the urethra.What is spermatogenesis? Where does spermatogenesis occur? Describe the process of spermatogenesis.Spermatogenesis is the production or development of mature spermatozoa. Occurs in the testes, more specifically the seminiferous tubules. The process is spermatogonia > primary spermatocytes > secondary spermatocytes > spermatids > spermatozoaWhat is oogenesis? Describe the events of oogenesis. What is the purpose of the polar bodies during oogenesis?Production and maturation of female ovum/eggs. Oogonium > (mitosis) > primary oocyte > (meiosis) > secondary oocyte > (ovulation and sperm entry) > (meiosis and fertilization) > fertilized ovum. To conserve cytoplasm for the oocyte.Distinguish between spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, and spermatozoa.Spermatogonia are the primitive cells that first emerge from mitosis. Mitosis ends when spermatogonium yields 2 primary spermatocytes. A Primary spermatocyte produces 2 secondary spermatocytes during meiosis I. Secondary spermatocytes transform into spermatids during meiosis II. Spermatozoa are the final product of spermatogenesis. Spermatozoa are either X or Y (because of the final division).Distinguish between oogonia, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte. Which stage is fertilized?Oogonia are female gamete mother cells. A primary oocyte is a diploid cell that is formed from the oogonia. A secondary oocyte is an oocyte that is produced by division of a primary oocyte in the first meiotic division.What organs comprise the external reproductive structures of the male? Internal? What is the primary organ of the male? Do the same for the female.M: external = testes, penis, scrotum, epididymis; internal = vas deferens, prostate, urethra; primary = testicles F: external = vulva (mons pubis, labia majora/minora, clitoris, vestibule, urethra, and vaginal opening); internal = vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, ovary); primary = ovariesName and locate the glands of the male reproductive system. What does each gland add to the seminal fluid?Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland: (S) fructose, citric acid, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen (nutrients for the sperm) (P) alkaline fluid for lubrication (B) Cowper's fluid neutralizes acidic environments (urethra, vagina)What is a gamete? What are the two types of gametes? How are gametes different that normal body cells?Gamete = sex cell/haploid cell from parent with only 23 chromosomes; egg cell (F) and sperm (M); these cells only have 23 chromosomes (½), are used in reproduction, and undergo meiosisHormones and their functions. Male - FSH, LH, testosterone, GnRH. Female - FSH, LH, estrogen, progesterone, GnRH. What structure secretes each?(M): FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) - controls sperm production, LH (luteinizing hormone) - causes testicles to produce testosterone, Testosterone - regulate libido, bone mass, fat distribution, muscle mass/strength, and RBC/sperm production, GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) - stimulation of LH (F): FSH - manages the menstrual cycle and stimulates the ovaries to produce eggs, LH - controls the menstrual cycle and triggers the release of an egg, Estrogen - sexual and reproductive development and maintenance (breasts, pubic hair, etc.), Progesterone - regulation of menstruation and supporting pregnancy, GnRH - indirectly stimulates production of estrogen and progesteroneDescribe the structure of a sperm cell. What is the primary function of each part?Head, midpiece, and tail: the head has an acrosomal cap to dissolve the egg membrane (if it reaches the egg first) and is aerodynamically shaped to help it swim. It only has a nucleus. The midpiece has pockets of nutrients for the sperm to keep going. The tail is a structure called a flagellum that moves the sperm in the direction of the egg.Describe the structure of the uterus - layers, regions. Which layer causes childbirth? Which layer is shed during menstruation?Endometrium (innermost layer), myometrium (thickened middle layer) composed of smooth muscle, and the perimetrium (outermost layer) which is a serosal layer covering the uterus. The myometrium contracts during childbirth. The endometrium sheds during menstruation.Describe the structure of the fallopian tubes (uterine tubes, oviducts)? What are fimbriae? What are the functions of the fallopian tubes?Fallopian tubes are ciliated to help move the egg down to the uterus. Fimbriae are finger-like projections at the ovarian end of the fallopian tubes that brush against the ovaries to bring a released egg into the fallopian tube. The fallopian tube is muscular and carries the egg down to the uterus and acts as a channel for sperm to find and fertilize the egg.Diagram of the ovarian cycle. Distinguish between a follicle and the corpus luteum. What is the function of each?A follicle is a fluid-filled sac that contains an immature egg cell, it is produced by the ovaries. Its function is to house an immature egg cell and release it into the ovarian tube when stimulated by FSH. Corpus luteum is a follicle after it has released an egg, it then turns yellow (corpus luteum means yellow body in Latin). This structure releases the hormone progesterone to help thicken the uterine lining.Describe the path taken by the sperm cell from when it is formed in the seminiferous tubule until it is released through the urethra.Spermatogenesis - spermatids transform into spermatozoa (formed sperm) which get released from the seminiferous tubules and move to the epididymis. From here they mature more and if an ejaculation occurs, the sperm will move up the vas deferens into the prostatic urethra and out of the penisAfter ovulation, into what structure is the egg released?Fimbriae > Fallopian tubeWhich parts correspond in the male and female (example: penis, clitoris).Ovary > testes, labia majora > scrotum, clitoris > penis, labia minora > penile skinDescribe the structure and function of the scrotum.Bag of skin that holds and protects the testes outside of the body (at a lower temperature - lower temperature is needed to make sperm cells)Describe the phases and events of the ovarian cycle.Follicular Phase: maturation of ovarian follicle and release of estrogen, starts with first day of menstruation, prompted by the relase of FSH from the hypothalamus/pituitary gland Ovulation: hypothalamus releases GnRH which triggers FHS and LH to stimulate the follicle to release the egg cell (ovum) roughtly halfway between periods Luteal Phase: corpus luteum forms and secretes progesterone this causes the endometrium to prepare for the embryoWhat structures are included in the vulva of the female?Mons pubis, labia majora/minora, clitoris, vestibule, urethra, and vaginal opening.What is the function of Leydig (sertoli, sustentacular) cells?These are interstitial cells adjacent to seminiferous tubules in the testes - they produce androgen and testosterone; required for differentiation of male genitalia and brain mascuilinizationWhen is meiosis completed?Once the egg is fertilized.What is the purpose of polar bodies during oogenesis?To conserve cytoplasm for the oocyte. The oocyte will depend on the cytoplasm if fertilized.Describe the structure of the penis. What structure passes through the corpus spongiosum?Three cylindrical spaces that are blood-filled erectile tissue. The two larger spaces are the corpora cavernosa, the smaller is the corpus spongiosum (surrounds the urethra). These spaces fill with blood to cause an erection.Describe the events leading to an erection in the male.During sexual arousal, nerve messages from the brain begin to stimulate the penis.Describe the negative feedback control of testosterone production.Rising levels of testosterone cause the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to release GnRH, FSH, and LHWhat is a zygote?A diploid cell resulting from two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.How is the sex of the child determined?The chromosome that the male sperm carries. X -female Y -maleWhat is the gubernaculum? Where do the testes and ovaries originate in the fetus?A fetal ligament attached to the caudal epididymis and testis and the bottom of the scrotum guides the descent of the testes into the scrotum. The testes and ovaries initially develop from the mesothelial layer of the peritoneum.Name and describe the events of the menstrual cycle.The four phases of the menstrual cycle are menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase. Mensuration is the shedding of the endometrium, which was thickened to prepare for possible pregnancy. This is a period, lasting three days to a week long. The follicular phase is prompted by the hypothalamusDiscuss folliculogenesis.Folliculogenesis is the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte. Folliculogenesis describes the progression of a number of small primordial follicles into large preovulatory follicles that occurs in part during the menstrual cycleDescribe the relationship between the ovarian, uterine, and hormonal cycles in the female.Study Separate