MVCS World History 16 "Attempts at Liberty" 2022

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What was mercantilism?
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For how many years had the colonists in America managed their own affairs with little help from Britain?About 150 yearsWhat effect did the Great Awakening have on the colonists?-It caused the colonists to seek the Lord and to live by His rules -It brought unity to the colonists because people from every colony were affected by the preaching of George Whitfield and Jonathan Edwards -It reinforced a sense of equality among persons because "all have sinned." We are all the same in God's eyes.What new challenges did the French and Indian War bring to Britain (1754-1763)As the victor, Britain more than doubled her territory in North America by gaining Canada and the land between the Mississippi River and the Appalachian Mountains Britain was also faced with a tremendous debt of 140 million poundsWhy did Britain become more involved in the colonies after the French and Indian War?-King George III was a young hands-on ruler -Britain was in debt and felt the colonies should help pay for the debt since much of the cost was incurred by the war in North America -Britain needed to balance in North America two groups now: their British colonies and the former French colony of CanadaWhat actions by the British were viewed as threats to liberty by the colonists?-New taxes -British troops enforcing laws in the colonies -Britain's switch to paying governor salaries -Britain trying to undercut colonial trade by selling low-priced tea -Military rule of Boston following the Boston Tea Party: -Britain's reputation of severe treatment of the Acadians (French in Nova Scotia) and of the IrishWhat actions taken by the colonists upset the British?-Riots -Boycotts -Boston Massacre -Boston Tea Party -Storing of munitions at Lexington and ConcordWhat side effect did the Military Rule of Boston have on the colonists?It unified them -colonists sent food and supplies to help Boston -It caused them to created Committees of Correspondence -It caused them to create a colonial militia called MinutemenWhere were the first shots of the Revolution fired?Lexington and Concord 1775What event and date marks the birthdate of the United States of America?The signing of the Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776What battle of the American Revolution marked a turning point in the war?The Battle of Saratoga Colonists began to win because the French (Lafayette!) began to help usWhat treaty ended the War for Independence?The Treaty of Paris 1783When was our Constitution written?1787What kind of government was established by the Constitution?-federal government - power shared by state and national governments -representative government - the people elect leaders to make the laws -government accountable to the peopleInto what three groups was the Estates General divided?First Estate - clergy (priests, bishops, church leaders) Second Estate - Nobility Third Estate - doctors, lawyers, merchants, peasantsWhat group was the largest and paid the most taxes?The Third Estate = 98% of the population and paid the most taxesWhy was the French government in debt?-No budget -Involvement in the French and Indian War - and lost income (fur trade) from it -Involvement in the American RevolutionWhat did the Third Estate do when the king and the other estates refused to treat them fairly?-They proclaimed themselves to be the National Assembly -They made the Tennis Court Oath in which they refused to disassemble until they had written a constitutionWhat event marks the beginning of the French Revolution?The Storming of the Bastille July 14, 1789What document similar to the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the National Assembly?the Declaration of the Rights of ManWhat is a key difference between the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man?The American colonists recognized the fact that they are subject to God ("all men are created equal")What group in the National Assembly wanted more radical changes made to the French government?the Jacobins, led by RobespierreHow did the French abolish the monarchy and establish a republic?They declared 1792 "Year One of the Republic" King Louis XVI was beheadedWhat "merciful" form of capital punishment was used against those who opposed the Revolution?the guillotineHow did the Committee of Public Safety suppress opposition to the Revolution?Headed by Robespierre 40,000 people were executed by guillotine during this Reign of TerrorHow does the Reign of Terror end?Robespierre was beheadedHow did Napoleon Bonaparte gain national recognition?Through his daring and successful military methods in the war with Austria and in suppressing revoltsHow did Napoleon come to power?He and his followers staged a coup d'état (overthrow of the government)What good reforms did Napoleon make?1. Public Works program -The government employed people to build roads, bridges, canals 2. Economic Reforms -Bank of France, standardized money system, more equitable tax system, stabilized the national debt 3. Public Education 4. Code of Laws = Code Napoleon -Systematized the laws that came out the Revolution 5. Restored the Catholic ChurchIn 1804 what proclamation did the Senate make regarding Napoleon?Crowned him emperor of FranceWhat countries made alliances with Napoleon or became subject to him?-Austria -Holy Roman Empire (made it the Confederation of the Rhine) -PrussiaWhat countries remained independent?Britain RussiaAt what battle did Lord Nelson defeat Napoleon's fleet?Trafalgar (near the Strait of Gibraltar)How did Russia resist Napoleon's attempt to conquer them?-They burned their crops, depriving his troops of food -They burned Moscow, depriving his troops of shelter -By the time Napoleon made it to Moscow it was winter and many died of exposureWhat demand did Napoleon make of his empire that caused them to break from him?He forced them to close their ports to BritainWhere was Napoleon defeated the final time?WaterlooWhat was Napoleon's punishment?He was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean