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Exam 2 diseases 2
Terms in this set (65)
Pre-renal azotemia is due to:
insufficient blood flow to the kidneys to form glomerular filtrate
Which of the following is true?
a. azotemia can be prerenal, renal or postrenal
b. azotemia can be measured as BUN and creatinine
c. azotemia is an increase in nitrogen compounds in the blood
d. all of the above are true
all of the above are true
What percentage of functional nephrons must be lost in the kidneys for azotemia to occur?
Uremic animals are always azotemic.
Clinical signs of uremia can include:
A- vomiting, diarrhea, ulcers
B- anorexia, weakness, vomiting
C- depression, convulsions, coma
D- all of the above
All of the above
true or false: If you can correct the underlying problem, prerenal azotemia has a good prognosis for kidney function.
true or false: Postrenal azotemia can be life threatening because retention of urine leads to hyperchloridemia which can cause cardiac arrhythmias.
Nephrons can hypertrophy and take over the work of lost nephrons. What percentage of nephrons must be lost before the animal starts to show signs of PU/PD?
true or false: "Oliguric" refers to excessive urine production and excessive urine excretion.
In acute renal disease, all of the following are true except:
A- kidneys will usually be normal or larger than normal
B- blood pH will often be alkaline
C- lab data will show azotemia
D- there may be casts in the urine
blood pH will often be alkaline
Diet for renal disease would include:
A- increase phosphorous intake
B- increase protein intake
C- feed a growth formula
D- none of the above
none of the above
All of the following are true for acute renal disease except
A- goal is to keep patient alive while the nephrons have a chance to compensate/hypertrophy
B- treatment is usually successful and results are seen immediately
C- use diuresis to correct electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities
D- use diuresis to maintain kidney perfusion
treatment is usually successful and results are seen immediately
In chronic renal disease/failure we can see which of the following signs?
true or false: Urinary obstructions are seen more often in male dogs than in female dogs.
These are all recommendations for a cat with Feline Idiopathic Cystitis(FIC) EXCEPT:
A- Hills c/d multicare stress diet
B- Royal Canin s/o diet
C- environmental enrichment
D- These are all acceptable recommendations for a cat with FIC
These are all acceptable recommendations for a cat with FIC
true or false: The enzyme GGT is more indicative of disease of dogs and cats than in horses and cattle.
Which of the following is a pathognomonic (specific) sign of liver disease?
D- there are no pathognomonic signs of liver disease
there are no pathognomonic signs of liver disease
When elevations of liver enzymes are found on a blood chemistry profile, the proper interpretation of this information is:
hepatocytes have been injured
Bilirubin is derived from the breakdown of
One of the most important parts of treatment of an animal with pancreatitis is:
IV fluids and pain medication
true or false: If an animal survives an episode of pancreatitis, the client may be reassured that relapses are rare.
Which of the following signs would you probably not see in an animal with pancreatitis?
C- abdominal pain
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI) occurs when 85-90% of the exocrine pancreas is destroyed. This can result from:
repeated attacks of pancreatitis
A canine patient has been successfully treated for pancreatitis and is being discharged from your hospital. Which of the following would you NOT tell the owner as a recommendation?
A- exercise your dog
B- lose weight/keep weight normal
C- feed a low fat diet/low calorie diet
D- you would recommend all of these things to a recovering pancreatitis patient
you would recommend all of these things to a recovering pancreatitis patient
Elevated bilirubin in the blood indicates:
A- RBC lysis (hemolysis) has occurred and the liver can't process all the bilirubin
B- bile stasis has occurred and bilirubin is "backing up" into the bloodstream
C- the pancreas is producing too much bilirubin
D- both a and b can be correct
both a and b
AlkP can be elevated during:
A- bile stasis
B- use of glucocorticoids
C- use of antiseizure drugs such as phenobarbital
D- b. and c.
E- all of the above
all of the above
If an animal is in liver "failure" the normal levels of which products can be altered?
D- both a and b
E- a, b and c
a, b and c
Extrahepatic portovascular anomalies will usually show up in what type of animal?
small breed dogs
A portocaval shunt is an anomalous vessel connecting the:
portal vein to the caudal vena cava
The best blood test to help diagnose a portocaval shunt is:
true or false: Lead toxicity can show clinical signs which involve the eyes.
true or false: Permethrin, which is found in many topical flea products can be used in both cats and dogs.
Which of the following is true concerning permethrin toxicity?
A- one clinical sign is hypersalivation
B- a clinical sign is vomiting
C- "paw shaking" can occur in cats
D- all of the above are true
all of the above are true
A dog comes into the clinic with a suspected organophosphate toxicity from a dip that the owners have used. The dog has an odor to the skin and hair. The veterinarian is in surgery and can't look at the dog immediately, but the veterinarian tells you to ________________________ and he/she will look at it as soon as they get out of surgery.
bathe the dog
Which of the following is true concerning acetaminophen toxicity?
A- only toxic to cats
B- converts hemoglobin to methemoglobin
C- dogs show mainly liver toxicity
D- both b and c are correct
both b and c are correct
One treatment for ethylene glycol poisoning is:
IV ethyl alcohol/ethanol
true or false: Warfarin or coumarin-type toxicities work by inhibiting coagulation.
Treatment for anticoagulant rodenticides would be:
The main detoxification organ(s) of the body is:
If it is less than 2 hours since the animal has ingested the poison, the veterinarian might want to tell the owner to induce vomiting at home before bringing the animal into the hospital. Which of the following criteria should be present prior to inducing vomiting?
A- the patient should be fully conscious
B- if the toxin is not a caustic product
C- if the toxin has been identified
D- both b and c
E- all of these should be present before inducing vomiting
all of these should be present before inducing vomiting
Which of the following is not recommend to induce vomiting?
A- syrup of ipecac
D- hydrogen peroxide
E- a and c should not be used
a and c should not be used
Why would you use activated charcoal after ingestion of a toxin?
it is an "adsorber" (binds the toxin so it doesn't get absorbed)
If a dog has consumed a substantial amount of ethylene glycol what clinical signs may be seen on the first day?
Acetominophen toxicity affects the dog's ______________ and affects the cat's ______________________.
liver, respiratory system (he allowed liver, cardiovascular system/hemoglobin)
Heinz body anemia can be seen in cats with _______________ toxicity.
A guinea pig shows up at your clinic with swollen joints, is grinding its teeth due to pain, has weight loss and has anorexia. This is likely due to what?
A Vit C deficiency from an improper diet
This is the most common neoplasia that you will see in mice:
malignant mammary adenocarcinomas
This species is prone to obesity and subsequent hepatic lipidosis due to improper nutrition:
True/False: When owning a ferret you have to be very careful if your pet develops the flu because of its zoonotic potential and high likelihood that your ferret will give the respiratory virus to you.
Metabolic bone disease in lizards is caused by this:
A- Vit C deficiency
B- Vit D3 deficiency
C- Calcium deficiency
D- lack of UV-B radiation
E- all of the above
F- b, c, and d
b, c, and d
True/False. Finding fecal balls that are clumped together in a rabbit's cage in the afternoon is a normal finding since they need to ingest these cecetropes. These cecetropes contain recycled Vitamin B, fiber, and required bacteria for proper digestion.
Which of the following statements is false in regard to dentition?
A- Rabbits, chinchillas and rodents all have elodont teeth (teeth that continuously grow)
B- Improper rabbit diets are likely to lead to tooth spurs that may cut the tongue and/or cheeks
C- Rabbits and rodents have peg teeth that continuously grow
D- Peg teeth are located behind the maxillary incisors
Rabbits and rodents have peg teeth that continuously grow
This is a bacteria that is a normal inhabitant of reptiles' GI tract and may be transmitted to people:
Which of the following is NOT true regarding proper husbandry in rats and mice:
A- wood shavings are not good for bedding as they can aggravate their sensitive respiratory systems
B- They both practice copraphagy
C- Their teeth will turn yellow/orange as a sign of liver disease
D- rats can secrete red fluid into their eyes that owners may mistake for blood
Their teeth will turn yellow/orange as a sign of liver disease
If proper husbandry is not met this can commonly be seen in birds:
Pododermatitis and feather plucking
What is the recommended location to place an IV catheter in a rabbit?
Marginal ear vein
These are 2 conditions that make it very important to get radiographs on guinea pigs to help diagnose a problem:
Urinary stones and vestibular disease
Which of the following is a true statement regarding restraint in avian species:
A- You can restrain them by holding them around their neck and around their entire body cavity
B- You should restrain them by holding around their necks and holding their feet
C- If needing to sedate for longer than 15 minutes they should be intubated
D- all of the above
E- b and c are both correc
b and c are both correct
What is the preferred site to acquire blood in birds?
Right jugular vein
When sedating lizards this is the preferred method to do so:
Chemical sedation with Telazol and then if need to maintain sedation longer to intubate with gas
Which liver enzyme is liver specific in the dog and cat?
What are 2 common physical exam findings in patients that might be found with pancreatitis? (Not labarotory findings)
Abdominal pain, prayer position sitting, dehydration, distenited abdomen
Since lipase and amylase are not very specific blood tests to diagnose pancreatitis, what other tests can be done that are more sensitive and specific? Name at least 2 tests
PLI and abdominal ultrasound
Why is anemia seen in cats with chronic renal disease? Be specific
Decreased erythropoietin from the kidney and then that causes decreased RBC production
What is the first thing you should do if a bird comes into your clinic in respiratory distress?
Place in an oxygen chamber, never handle or restrain a bird that is having difficulty breathing.... i said ask the owner to move them in an induction chamber with O2 on (both are correct)
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