- In the darkness - line 1 - The creature lives in the marshes
What "Christian" ideas surface in this section?
Line 7 - the Almighty making the earth, referring to God and the creation story Lines 20-24 - reference to Can and Able bible passage Line 84 - Hrothgar's glorious throne is protected by God
What did Grendel accomplish during his first visit to the Hall?
36- Killing Hrothgar's men
What was Hrothgar's reaction to Grendel's visit?
44 - Hrothgar was mourning the death of his soldiers
How long had the hall remained empty? Why?
60-64 - stayed empty for 12 winters of grief, 12 years
Why didn't Grendel attack Hrothgar's throne? (explain: Divine Right of Kings)
84 - his throne is protected by God because he was chosen by God to be king - the Divine Right of Kings
What pagan ideas surfaced in this section?
26-27 - into a thousand forms of evil: sprits and fiends, goblins, monsters and giants
Find TWO kennings in this section.
Line 64- by hell-forged hands - putting them thru his experiences, like going thru hell and back Line 112 - In that oak-hard boat
Find a personification in this section.
Line 65- The seas was told and sung in all men's' ears
What is the conflict in this first section?
Line 36,57- Grendel killing Hrothgar's men and the rest of the men fled the city
Who is Beowulf? Where did he live?
- Beowulf was a Geat - line 90 - Higlaot follower, strongest of the Geats - 99 - loved by his people, brave and strong
Why does Beowulf go to the Danes?
93-96 - to defeat the monster Grendel
What does the watchman ask of Beowulf? Why is he perplexed?
143-153 - The watchmen asked who Beowulf is and who his men are, his fathers name, where they are from, and why they are here. He is perplexed because no one has ever come upon their land to attack or take over the Danes
Who takes Beowulf to Hrothgar's home?
187-189 - the watchmen takes him to Hrothgar's home
Describe Beowulf's armor.
111 - his arm was gleaming 217 - silver metal mail shirt, gleaming with the smith's high art
204-209 - Towering, majestic, glittery - covered with hammered gold glowing in the sun - The most famous of all dwellings 225 - deserted and useless after Grendel's attack
Describe Beowulf's former heroic deeds.
230-236 - He fought brave land wars, haunted monsters - He swam in the blackness of night haunting monsters in the ocean - Drove 5 great giants into chains
How will Beowulf fight Grendel? Why?
245-255 - With his bare hands because Grendel doesn't fight with weapons 252 - God must decide who dies with deaths cold grip 244 - alone and with all of his men
What does Beowulf ask Hrothgar to do in case he does not succeed?
265-268 - send his armor back to Higlaots and return the inheritance he had with Hrothgar
What line(s) foreshadow(s) Grendel meeting his match this night?
293-295 - faith at night intended Grendel to nawl at the last broken bones of his human supper 364 - he time has come, the weapons were wanted but he was going to die anyways
What happens to the first victim Grendel chooses that night?
298-302 - Grendel snatched his first victim ripped him apart, cut his body into shreds with his claws,
Who is Grendel's second choice?
305 - Beowulf
Describe Herot as the battle between Grendel and Beowulf continues.
329 - Herot trembled and shook from the battle 326 - the high hall rang, its roof boards swayed 326, 335 - Gold covered boards fell to the floor but Herot stood firm
What is the only way that Herot can be destroyed? FIRE
348 - Only fire, they had planned, could shatter what such skill had put together swallow in hot flames such splendor of ivory and iron and wood
As Grendel meets Beowulf, what is his only thought?
314 - to run 399-402 - Grendel knew at once there was no man on earth that's hands were firmer and
Why is Grendel crying out so loudly?
345 - he screams of physical pain and emotional pain of being defeated
Why do the swords of the Geats have no power against Grendel?
357-363 - Grendel put a spell on mortal mens' swords causing them to be dull on the skin
What is Grendel's condition when he leaves Herot? Where does he go?
378-382 - He is injured badly and later dies, goes back to his marsh before he dies and flees to his den 374-382 - his powers were gone 365 - his death mirrored on how down to hell he would go
What is Beowulf's trophy? Where does he keep it?
393 - Grendel's arm, claw, shoulder and all he cut off from the battle
What happens the day after Beowulf defeats Grendel?
396-400 - Crowds surround Herot , warriors coming to the hall form faraway lands, princes and leaders of men hurrying to behold the monster's great staggering tracks
What does Grendel's mother do the night after Grendel was murdered?
She goes to Herot to avenge her son's death. She kills Hrothgar's closet friend, retrieves Grendel's arm from the rafters where Beowulf had hung it, and returns to her lake.
State several proofs that Beowulf must be a superhuman.
429-430 - she had him in her claws but could not harm him 441 - the boiling water couldn't hurt him 442 - nothing in the lake could attack him
Where does Grendel's mother live?
At the bottom of a cold, dark lake
Why did she take Beowulf to a battle-hall?
To kill him in vengeance for her son 451-452 - he realized his weapons could not harm her in the battle hall
How did they fight? Why?
453 - they wrestled because weapons had no power in the hall
What part of his armor failed Beowulf?
454 - his helmet
What part of his armor saved him?
477-479 - his woven mail shirt protected so her sword could not pierce him
What did Beowulf find that finally brought the end to the "Water Witch"? Describe it.
485-489 - a heavy sword blessed by the giants magic, carved and decorated length
Why did Beowulf hunt for Grendel?
503-511 - for his night attacks at Herot on Hrothgar's men
What did he do after he found him? Why is this significant?
515-516 - he cut his head off - It is significant because it killed Grendel and the people were safe from his night raids
Why do the Danes leave the lake?
525-529 - they didn't want anymore of their men to get killed and thought Beowulf died so they had no hope
What allusion is apparent in the lines 518-534?
They were all seeing the signs of defeat thinking it was of Beowulf when it was really Grendel's mother
What happened to the weapon used against Grendel's mother?
535-536 - the sword melted with the blood like water
"The monster's hall was full of rich treasures..." but Beowulf left. What does this say about Beowulf?
He is a loyal person and does not need to take other prize possession to feel success in his victory, he came to protect the people and for the honor of being protector not the gifts and riches
Again, the Christian writer leaves his "mark" on this epic. What are some Christian references in this last part of the epic?
556 - thanked God that Beowulf came back unharmed
Prove that "Beowulf is an epic. (Go to the four parts of the definition.)
Epic hero - Beowulf Involved supernatural events - Long time period - 12 winters when Grendel attacked Distant journey - Beowulf journied to Grendel's mother's home Life and death struggle between good and evil - Beowulf vs. Grendel and Grendel's mother