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36 terms

Apes ch.2

STUDY
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Culture
Set of knowledge,beliefs, and learned ways of life of a group.
Worldview
Looking at the world under the influence of setting and culture
Ethics
A groups set of moral principles and their interpretation of right and wrong
Relativists
Those who believe moral principles are always dependent on the particular situation.
Universalists
those who believe that some fundamental ethical principles are universal and unchanging. In this vision, these principles are valid regardless of the context or situation
Ethical standards
The criteria that help differentiate right from wrong
Anthropocentrism
the belief that humans hold a special place in nature; being centered primarily on humans and human affairs.
Biocentrism
the belief that all creatures have rights and values; being centered on nature rather than humans
Ecocentrism
Moral principle that regards the ecosphere as the most important being in existence in an attempt to redress the imbalance created by anthropocentrism
Preservation conservation
Preservation states that we should protect our environment in a pristine, unaltered state. Conservation says we should put natural resources to use but that we have a responsibility to manage them wisely.
Deep ecology
Well-being and flourishing of all life have intrinsic value; richness and diversity of life contribute; may involve decrease in human population; humans don't have the right to reduce life
Ecofeminism
a pluralistic, nonhierarchical, relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests how humans could reconceive themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways as an alternative to patriarchal systems of domination
Environmental justice
A recognition that access to a clean, healthy environment is a fundamental right of all human beings
Economics
the study of how people seek to satisfy their needs and wants by making choices
Economy
frugality in the expenditure of money or resources
Goods
tangible products that we use to satisfy our wants and needs
Services
actions or activities that one person performs for another
Subsistence economy
a type of economy in which human groups live off the land with little or no surplus
Capitalist market economy
an economy in which buyers and sellers interact to determine which goods and services to produce, how much of them to produce, and how to distribute them
Centrally planned economy
economic system in which the central government makes all decisions on the production and consumption of goods and services
Mixed economics
have a combination of both private and goverment ownership and control of the means of production
Classical economics
the idea that free markets can regulate themselves
Neoclassical economics
an approach to economics based on supply and demand which depends on economic agents operating rationally based on available info
Cost benefit analysis
economic model that compares the marginal costs and marginal benefits of a decision
Externalities
indirect or unintended consequences imposed on society that may not be understood or anticipated
External costs
costs associated with quality failures uncovered after products reach customers.
Affluenza
unsustainable addiction to overconsumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the united states and other developed countries
Ecological economists
hold the view that economics is a sub-system of the Earth and that resources, goods, services, and money flow impact not only homes and businesses but all of Earth's systems
Steady state economy
characterized by low birth and death rates, use of renewable energy sources, recycling of materials, and emphasis on durability, efficiency, and stability.
Environmental economists
tend to agree with ecological economists that economies are unsustainable if poplualation growth is not reduced and resource use is not made more efficient
Gdp
Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy
Gpi
GPI: Genuine Progress Indicator= GDP + Benefits not included in market transactions (ie volunteering) - harmful environmental and social costs
Non market values
Values not included in the price of a good or service.
Contingent values
surveys people regarding their willingness to pay for a good or service such as hiking opportunities or air quality
Market failures
situations in which the market does not lead to a desired result
Ecolabeling
serves to tell consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes