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Reproductive Pathology - Male
Terms in this set (34)
Failure of the fusion of the two embryologic scrotal swellings.
Fluid accumulation between the visceral and parietal vaginal tunics. Usually from peritoneal fluid descending into the scrotum from the abdomen.
Inflammation of the vaginal tunic. Originate as orchitis or epididymitits that breaks out through the tunica albuguinea (Strongyle, Brucella, Actinobacillus, Trypanosoma, fungal).
Dermatitis of the scrotum
Common because of the ventral position, moisture, susceptibility to trauma and secondary infection.
3 neoplasms of the scrotum
Mast cell tumors, melanomas, and hemangiosarcoma (pic).
Due to blind-ended efferent tubules.
Most common cause of testicular hypoplasia?
Cryptorchidism. Testicular torsion and testicular neoplasia are more common with retained testes.
Testicular degeneration (atrophy)
Occurs frequently due to pressure and elevated temperature in chronically recumbent bulls and stallions. Vascular induced degeneration is seen with torsion. A degenerating testis is soft and does not bulge when cut (pic).
Normal in ruminants.
Importance of blood-testis barrier
Esatblished by Sertoli cells to isolate the contents of the seminiferous tubules from the host's immune system. Spermatids can induce severe orchitis/epididymittis when they escape through the BM (pic). Sperm-induced granulomas.
Causes of primary orchitis
Mycobacterial orchitis in bulls and boars.
Coronavirus of FIP in tom cats.
Salmonella and fungal in dogs.
Tuberculosis and brucellosis in cattle and pigs.
Same pathogenesis as orchitis. Sperm granulomas in polled goats.
Post castration complications
Open castration > hemoabdomen or inguinal hernias (pic).
Inflammation of the distal epididymis and proximal vas deferens associated with contaminated castration procedures. Can progress to peritonitis.
Common characteristics of dog testicular neoplasms:
Often have nodules of more than one tumor type and are bilateral.
Most common testicular neoplasm of dogs, cats and bulls?
Interstitial (Leydig) cell tumor.
Sertoli cell tumors
Firm, gray/off-white masses. Common to secrete estrogen if in canine cryptorchid.
Functional sertoli cell tumor causes anemia, bilaterally symmetric alopecia (pic), and pendulous prepuce.
Most common testicular tumor in the stallion?
Seminoma. Commonly diagnosed in stallions after they have implanted widely in the abdomen.
Remnants of the Mullerian ducts (Uterus masculinus)
Cysts between the ampullae. Common in bulls. Non pathologic.
Cystic prostatic hyperplasia in mature intact dogs
Enlarges and compresses the prostatic urethra. Testosterone and estrogen are needed to produce the lesion.
Usually caused by urinary pathogens leading to suppurative prostatitis and abscesses.
May enlarge and remain attached by a stalk as retention cysts. Can lead to straining and cause perineal hernias.
Squamous metaplasia of the prostate
Occurs with hyperestrogenism (functional Sertoli cell tumors) or hypovitaminosis A.
Ventral opening of the penile urethra.
Dorsal opening of the urethra.
Persistence of the penile frenulum
Seen along the penile raphe and occasionally becomes a problem if the frenulum's remnant fails to separate with the onset of puberty.
Occur in breeding males from trauma occurring during coitus. Can be site of secondary metastatic abscesses.
Inflammation of the prepuce.
Inflammation of the penis. Commonly seen from trauma.
Ulcerative preputial lesions in horses caused by Habronemiasis.
Persistent erection not associated with breeding arousal.
Inability to replace the penis into the prepuce.
Penile paralysis and prolapse
Occurs with damage to the nerves of the penis or Acepromazine-induced in stallions.
Penile and preputial neoplasms
Canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).
Squamous cell carcinoma.
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