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What is a normal AP to transverse diameter?


What is the expected sound when one percusses above the lungs?


The trachea is .... to the esophagus


This occurs when vibrations in the bronchial tubes occur.


This occurs when air passes through either fluid or exudate.


Which bronchus is shorter and steeper?

Parietal Pleura

This lines the chest cavity.

Visceral Pleura

This lines the lungs.


How many lobes does the R. lung have?


How many lobes does the L lung have?

Less than 90

What angle is considered normal for the costal angle?


What is the primary drive for breathing?

Lung cancer

What is the leading cause of death in the US and Europe?

Suprasternal notch

This is a u shaped indentation on the superior border of the manubrium.


Which vertebra is a spinous process called the vertebra prominens?


This part of the lung extends above the clavicle


This part of the lung is at the level of the diaphragm.


Where are the sounds of the upper lungs heard the best?


where are the sounds of the lower lungs heard the best?

Dead space

This is what places such as the trachea and bronchi are called because no gas exchange occurs here.

Medulla and Pons

What structures in the brain stem are responsible for involuntary control of respirations?

African American Men

Which racial/gender group is most at risk for lung cancer?


This is an increased curvature of the thoracic spine, occurs due to a loss of skeletal muscle. May be a normal finding.

Tripod position

This occurs when the client leans forward and uses his/her arms to support their weight, allows for increased breathing capacity.

ball of the hand

this part of the body is the best for assessing for tactile fremitus because it's especially sensitive to vibratory sensation.

5-10 cm apart

This is a normal amount for hands to move apart when performing a chest expansion test.


This sound can be heard when there is trapped air in such as cases as emphesema or pneumothorax.


Present when fluid/solid tissue replace air in the lung such as lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, or tumor.

Diaphragmatic Excursion

Tests the amount of distance between resonant sounds and dull sounds. Should be about 3-5 CM


This is a normal breath sound. Hear over the trachea and thorax. Has a high pitch, hollow quality, and loud amplitude.


This is a normal breath sound. Heard over the major bronchi, posteriorly between the scapulae, anteriorly in the upper sternum between 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces. Moderate pitch, mixed quality, and moderate amplitude.


This is a normal breath sound. Heard in peripheral lung fields. Has a low pitch, breezy quality, and soft amplitude.

Fine Crackles

This an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like high-pitched, short, popping sounds heard during inspiration and not cleared with coughing. Can be associated with obstructive disorders such as bronchitis or asthma, or with restrictive disorders such as pneumonia or CHF.

Coarse Crackles

This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low pitched bubbling, moist sounds. Can indicate pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary fibrosis.

Pleural Friction Rub

This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low-pitched, dry, and grating sound. Occurs due to pleuritis.

Wheeze (sibilant)

This is an abnormal breath sound. Its a high-pitched musical sound. Ocurs due to acute asthma or chronic emphesema.

Wheeze (sonorous)

This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low-pitched snoring or moaning. Occurs due to bronchitis or single obsructions such as with sleep apnea.


This is an abnormal breath sound heard in the trachea. Occurs due to severe broncholaryngospasm.


If you hear an abnormal breath sound you should always have the client do this.


What phrase should a client repeat to test for bronchophony?


What phrase should the client repeat to test for egophony?

One two three

What phrase should the client repeat to test for pectoriloquy?

Pectus Excavatum

This occcurs due to a markedly sunken sternum. It's often called a funnel chest.

Pectus Carinatum

This is when the sternum forwardly protudes causing adjacent ribs to slope backwards. Often called pigeon chest.


This occurs when there is a more horizontal position of the ribs and a costal angle of more than 90 degrees. Usually seen with long standing emphesema.


If a client breathes more than this many numbers of breaths in one minute they are considered tachypenic.


If a client breathes less than this number of breaths in one minute they are considered bradypenic.

Kussumaul's respirations

This is a type of hyperventillation associated with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Biot's respiration

This is a type of breathing seen with meningitis or severe brain damage.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

Regular pattern characterized by alternating periods of deep rapid breathing followed by periods of apnea.

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