This is what places such as the trachea and bronchi are called because no gas exchange occurs here.
Medulla and Pons
What structures in the brain stem are responsible for involuntary control of respirations?
This is an increased curvature of the thoracic spine, occurs due to a loss of skeletal muscle. May be a normal finding.
This occurs when the client leans forward and uses his/her arms to support their weight, allows for increased breathing capacity.
ball of the hand
this part of the body is the best for assessing for tactile fremitus because it's especially sensitive to vibratory sensation.
5-10 cm apart
This is a normal amount for hands to move apart when performing a chest expansion test.
This sound can be heard when there is trapped air in such as cases as emphesema or pneumothorax.
Present when fluid/solid tissue replace air in the lung such as lobar pneumonia, pleural effusion, or tumor.
Tests the amount of distance between resonant sounds and dull sounds. Should be about 3-5 CM
This is a normal breath sound. Hear over the trachea and thorax. Has a high pitch, hollow quality, and loud amplitude.
This is a normal breath sound. Heard over the major bronchi, posteriorly between the scapulae, anteriorly in the upper sternum between 1st and 2nd intercostal spaces. Moderate pitch, mixed quality, and moderate amplitude.
This is a normal breath sound. Heard in peripheral lung fields. Has a low pitch, breezy quality, and soft amplitude.
This an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like high-pitched, short, popping sounds heard during inspiration and not cleared with coughing. Can be associated with obstructive disorders such as bronchitis or asthma, or with restrictive disorders such as pneumonia or CHF.
This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low pitched bubbling, moist sounds. Can indicate pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary fibrosis.
Pleural Friction Rub
This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low-pitched, dry, and grating sound. Occurs due to pleuritis.
This is an abnormal breath sound. Its a high-pitched musical sound. Ocurs due to acute asthma or chronic emphesema.
This is an abnormal breath sound. Sounds like low-pitched snoring or moaning. Occurs due to bronchitis or single obsructions such as with sleep apnea.
This is an abnormal breath sound heard in the trachea. Occurs due to severe broncholaryngospasm.
This is when the sternum forwardly protudes causing adjacent ribs to slope backwards. Often called pigeon chest.
This occurs when there is a more horizontal position of the ribs and a costal angle of more than 90 degrees. Usually seen with long standing emphesema.
If a client breathes more than this many numbers of breaths in one minute they are considered tachypenic.
If a client breathes less than this number of breaths in one minute they are considered bradypenic.