BIOL 461 Final Exam

T or F: an organism's upper thermal limit is determined by the temperature at which their proteins denature
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The Gaia hypothesis states that the Earth and its inhabitants work together in a symbiotic relationship to keep each other alive. The biota of Earth affect its "health" as does Earth affect its constituents' health. The idea is that each are living beings with an important role in each other's wellbeing.
1. Coevolutionary Gaia: states that the biota and the earth coevolve and that their actions have negative and positive feedback loops that set the stage for coevolutionary change.
2. Homeostatic Gaia: states that interactions between the biota and the physical environment serve to maintain homeostasis, specifically in terms of climate.
3. Optimizing Gaia: states that biotic control of the physical environment creates optimal conditions for the biosphere.
Which of the following describes the range of temperatures over which an organism can survive?TbreadthDescribe the "hotter is better" hypothesisThe idea that organisms with higher optimal temperatures will perform better due to increased enzymatic activity/ratesGive an example of a niche shift due to metamorphosisSome organisms occupy different niches as they metamorphose into different life stages. For example, one parasite has three different life stages, and it does not infect new hosts until the third and final stage of life.Which term refers to the allocation of resources to one structure or function at the expense of another? a) trade-off b) alternation of generations c) complex lifestyle d) direct developmenta) trade-offList one benefit and one drawback to small larval sizeDrawback: more vulnerable to predators, not suited for competition benefit: more suited for dispersal and /or dormancyWhat is the difference between genetic drift and gene flow?Genetic drift: causes changes in small populations after random events Gene flow: causes transfer of alleles from one population to another due to movement of individuals/gametesDefine adaptive evolutionThe passing on of alleles that increase fitness by introducing or improving mechanisms that support survival/reproductionWhich level of organization evolves? a) individuals b) populations c) communities d) ecosystemsb) populationsExplain how a population can go extinct, even if suitable habitat patches still existWhen habitat patches become more isolated, immigration/emigration becomes more difficult, decreasing the population size and making the population more prone to an extinction vortexWhat is the "rescue effect"?When a population is protected from extinction by high amounts of immigration, diminishing issues associated with small population sizeWhat is inbreeding depression?The result of multiple generation of inbreeding which causes a reduction in fitness due to fixation of deleterious/harmful allelesT or F: US national parks were created to conserve biodiversityFalseDescribe the difference between a core natural area and a biological reserveA biological reserve is meant to protect one species or a small area, whereas a core natural area is a protected space designated to fostering biodiversity and conserving plant lifeDescribe the difference between a mutualistic interaction and a commensal interactionA mutualistic interaction is one in which both organisms benefit from each other, whereas a commensal interaction is where one organism benefits and the other is neither benefited nor harmedT or F: facultative relationships are relationships that are required for an organism to liveFalseWhat are the two components of optimal foraging theory?The time it takes to find the prey and handling timeDefine aposematic coloringColoring like bright reds and yellows which warns predators that they are poisonousWhat does the term "b" represent in the Lotka-Volterra model? a) capture efficiency b) mortality rate c) conversion of prey resources to predator offspring d) encounter ratec) conversion of prey resources to predator offspringWhat does the Lotka-Volterra model demonstrate?Predator-prey population cycling by taking into account search and handling times, energy conversion from consumption to reproduction, and immigration/emigration within both populationsWhat is an isocline?A point at which a certain species' growth is zero by taking into account resource availability and interactions with one or more speciesThe Lotka-Volterra model is based on a _____ growth equationLogisticT or F: competition can only occur between species that are closely relatedFalseWhat type of parameter do Violle and Jiang argue may be used to provide estimates of niche position and breadth?Mean trait values and intraspecific trait variabilityList 2 advantages of using plant functional traits as a proxy for performance or fitness1) less harmful to the organism because a majority of the biomass does not need to be harvest 2) easier to measure, allowing a large number of species to be observedWhat is another word for "trophic"?EnergeticWhat is the difference between a competitive network and competitive hierarchy?In a competitive network, strong direct competition is buffered by indirect interactions between connected species, whereas a competitive hierarchy is composed of a linear hierarchy in which one species clearly dominates over the othersDescribe the difference between disturbance and stressA disturbance is an abiotic event that creates opportunities for individuals to grow/reproduce by killing or injuring other individuals, whereas stress is when an abiotic event creates opportunity for individuals to grow/reproduce by reducing other individuals' growth, reproduction, or survivalWhat are the names of the three models of succession proposed by Connell and Slayter?Facilitation, tolerance, and inhibitionBriefly describe the inhibition modelThe colonizer species makes the environment less habitable for following speciesDefine vicarianceThe evolutionary separation of species due to barriers such as those formed by continental driftWhat theory, put forward by MacArthur and Wilson, predicts how species persist in habitat patches?The equilibrium theory of biogeographyDescribe two ways that coexistence can be promoted along a resource spectrum1) Resource partitioning can promote coexistence by allowing less overlap in niche position 2) processes that mediate resources can provide instances of disturbance that prevent dominant species from monopolizing resourcesWhat are two properties that species must have in lottery/neutral models?1) species must have fairly similar interaction strengths and population growth rates 2) they must have the ability to respond quickly to disturbances that free up resourcesHow should species richness be correlated with stability? a) positively b) negatively c) uncorrelateda) positivelyDescribe the difference between type A and type B relationship of species diversity and ecosystem functioningType A: linear model in which high species diversity of all kinds supports the highest functioning ecosystem Type B: curvilinear model in which a relatively low proportion of species is needed for ecosystem functioningDefine habitat degradationChanges that reduce the quality of habitat for many speciesHow has species richness changed in alpine environments due to warming temperatures? a) richness has increased b) richness has decreased c) richness has stayed the samea) richness has increased (species move up the mountain as temperatures warm)List two ways that extinction rates can be estimated1) by using fossil records to compare extinction rates 2) by using a species-area relationship to determine the amount of species in one areaWhat is a last resort technique to save endangered species that involves removing them from the wild and rearing them in captivity?Ex situ conservation