BIOL-1308 Final Exam

Which of the following is NOT a fungi?
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In the late 1800s, Louis Pasteur was searching for a vaccine for anthrax in livestock. One French veterinarian had a local reputation for being able to cure anthrax by applying oils and wrapping the animal cloth to induce a fever. Pasteur also knew that some animals got well in their own when left untreated. Pasteur tested the effectiveness of the local veterinarian's methods by injecting four cattle with anthrax bacteria. He then directed the veterinarian to perform his procedures on two cattle. The other two cattle were left alone. One cow from each group died and the other one in each group survived. Pasteur dismissed the veterinarian's procedure as ineffective, but he also considered this to be a poor test. Why would he consider this to be a poor test?
An informed statement that can be tested in a manner suited to the process of science is known as aHypothesisUsing the periodic table, what is the atomic number for Silicon(Si)?14The electrons of atoms are found in the_____centerWhich of the following properties of water is the reason why water curves in a graduated cylinder?CohesionTwo molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule during a(n) ____ reactionDehydration____ is a polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls and accounts for their strengthCelluloseThe monomers of carbohydrate aremonosaccharidesWhen an ionic bond forms, electronstransferred from one atom to anotherThe isotope shown below has8 neutronsDetermine what would happen to an individual's proteins if they developed a fever of 103'F for several daysThe proteins would denature due to the increase in body temperature and would become unable to function correctly.Which of the following substance is considered basic?ammoniaWhich plant organelle is the site of cellular respiration, where energy is made?mitochondriaWhich bacteria are visible in the _____ range.micrometersWhich structure regulates passage of molecules into and out of the bacterial cell?plasma membraneWhich is the name of the hereditary material inside the nucleus?chromatinTissues that produce large amounts of secretions, such as the gastric glands of the stomach, contain cells with large numbers ofgolgi apparatusThe long whip like structures that helps cells move. For example, sperm cells have these long tail whip like structures?flagellaMicrotubulesare composed mostly of lipidThe endosymbiotic theory argues that prokaryotic cells became some of the organelles of early eukaryotic cells. Which of the following supports this theory?All the answers support the endosymbiotic theoryIf a plant is placed in a hypertonic solution, then water will ___ the cellleaveWhich is a correct association of protein types?enzymatic proteins - carry out metabolic reactions directlyThe diffusion of water is calledosmosisMolecules such as glucose and amino acids are NOT lipid soluble and therefore theycombine with carrier proteins and pass across the cell membrane by facilitated transportWhen a substance moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration while using energy, the process is termedactive transportwhich of the following refers to materials only leaving the cell?exocytosisOxygen leaves the alveoli in the lungs and enters the capillaries by endocytosisFalseWhat two components are commonly found in the extracellular matrix that help resist stretching and provide resilience?proteins and polysaccharidesWhich intercellular junction allows for the rapid movement of small molecules or ions to flow from one animal cell to the next?gap junctionsIn the sodium potassium pump, how many sodium's (Na) exit the cell?2The nuclear membrane disappears in mitosis duringprophaseProteins that promote the cell cycle and prevent apoptosis are encoded byproto-oncogenesIf a cell stops at the G1 checkpoint, this is most likely due to what problem?There is DNA damageWhich of the following best characterizes apoptosis?Apoptosis plays a normal role in development and cancer preventionWhich of the following is the correct sequence for the cell cycle?G1-S-G2-MYou are looking at a cell under the microscope, and see what appears to be several "X" structures being pulled to each side of the cell. What stage of meiosis are you looking at?anaphase IDuring what stage of meiosis do sister chromatids separate from each other?anaphase IIDuring crossing-overchromatids exchange segments of genetic materialSynapsis and crossing over occurs during what stage of meiosis?prophase IChromosomes are made of proteins and DNATrueMeiosis results in a change in chromosome number indicated by2n to nHow does cell division differ between animal and plant cells?The cell plate is the final partitioning of plant cellWhere are female gametes produced?ovariesThe name for production of the sperm is calledspermatogenesisAll of the energy that a plant stores in the bonds of glucose are available to an animal to power its musclesFalseEach enzyme has a particular substrate because enzymesare named for their substrateWhich of the following molecules is NOT an enzyme?lactoseWhich is true about energy of activation?Adding the correct enzyme can lower the energy of activation.Occasionally someone claims to have built a machine that can run forever, producing as much energy as it consumes. This has always been disproved because it violatesthe second law of thermodynamicsWhen a cell uses substantial energy to organize its cell contents to a greater degree than the organization that exists outside the living cellentropy has decreasedChemical reactions that require the input of energy areendergonic reactionsThe high energy bond in ATP is found in or betweenphosphate groupsIf A+B->C+D+E represents a metabolic pathway, then the letter E would bea productWhile eating a container of yogurt, you have to leave, so you store the yogurt in the refrigerator. A day later you return and find the surface of the yogurt is no longer smooth but has broken into several liquified products. You correctly guess that enzymes from your saliva, via the spoon, have continued digesting the yogurt in your absence. What will happen over time?as long as the enzyme is not denatured by environmental conditions, the reaction will continue until all of the substrate is used upThe specificity of an enzyme to a substrate is currently best explained bythe induced-fit modelLactose is milk sugar that is broken down by the enzyme lactase. The reason that some people are "lactose intolerant" could be becausethey are missing the enzyme lactase in their digestive systemThe removal of electrons and/or hydrogen atoms from a substrate is called what?oxidationDuring cellular respiration, what is reduced?oxygenWhich of the following is a substrate (reactant) of cellular respiration?glucoseWhich molecules is NOT a product(s) of aerobic respiration?ATPWhere does glycolysis take place within the cell?cytoplasmPyruvate is converted to a two-carbon acetyl group attached to coenzyme A (CoA), and CO2 is given off. This phase is calledthe preparatory reactionFor on molecule of carbon dioxide, the Calvin Cycle must turn a total ofsix timesWhich is a correct association of mitochondrion structure and phase of cellular respiration?matrix-citric acid cycleAt the end of glycolysis, what is the net gain of ATPs?twoDuring the electron transport chain each NADH is equal to __ ATPsthreeDuring the electron transport chain each FADH is equal to ___ ATPsFermentation is inefficient is using the energy found in food molecules and the resulting alcohol can be toxic to the organism producing it. Which of the following is a reason why an organism would utilize fermentation?All of the answer choices are reasons organisms would utilize fermentationPyruvate can be converted to lactase instead of going to the preparatory reaction. Why does this occur?Oxygen is not availableThe only end product of alcohol fermentation is the alcoholFalseWhich of the following allows photosynthetic organisms to capture solar energy?pigmentsThe main function of stomata is toallow passage of CO2 and O2 into the leaf.What does the term stroma refer to?the central fluid-filles space of the chloroplastIn which plant structure does photosynthesis primarily occur?leafWhich coenzyme is involved in the light reactions?NADP+Why are plant leaves green?They reflect green wavelengths of light.Which part of photosynthesis occurs in the stroma?Calvin cycle reactionsThe H+ (protons) accumulate in the thylakoid space during electron transport between photosystems I and II. The excess of protons in the thylakoid spacemoves from the thylakoid space to the stroma though the ATP synthase complexWhat are the stages of the Calvin Cycle?carbon dioxide fixation, carbon dioxide reduction, and regeneration of RuBPChlorophyll agreenChlorophyll bolive greenbeta caroteneorangexanthophyllsyellow