Bio 1620 FINAL ):

In thermoregulation of the body, an increase in body temperature would
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Freshly oxygenated blood from the lungs returns to the heart directly into the ___________________.Left AtriumConstriction of the precapillary sphincters would cause the majority of blood to bypass the capillary beds.TrueThe sites of gas exchange within the lungs are the _______________.AlveoliWhich of the following cell types directly interacts with and kills infected or cancerous cells?Cytotoxic T cellsWhich of the following cell types is considered part of acquired immunity? select all that applyplasma cells, Memory B cells, and cytotoxic T cellsNatural killer cells are considered part ofInnate ImmunityA "compound capable of activating the immune system response" is called a(n) _________________.AntigenWhat type of cell produces and secretes antibodies?Plasma B CellsWhich of the following is different between T cells and B cells?T cells but not B cells can directly attack and destroy invading pathogensThe stimulus for the release of vasopressin is _________________ and it causes the production of a ______________ urine.high osmolarity; concentratedWhich of the following is considered the "functional unit" of the kidney?NephronA marine fish has which of the following osmoregulatory adaptations?drinks a lot and produces little urineA fish living in the freshwater Bear Lake would have a greater number of juxtamedullary nephrons than one living in the Great Salt Lake.FalseWhere does an osmoconformer live?OceanA desert mammal would typically be expected to have a long Loop of Henle.TrueA cell with membrane-bound proteins that selectively bind a specific hormone is called that hormone's ________.Target CellDifferent body cells can respond differently to the same hormones because ________.a target cell's response is determined by distinct receptors and signal transduction pathwaysHormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are made in the ________.hypothalamusWhich of the following is NOT a true statement?Hormones of the same chemical class usually have the same function.What is a hormone?a chemical that is released into the bloodstream and has effects at distant sitesWhich of the following are involved in a typical hormone cascade? select all that applyhypothalamus, negative feedback, anterior pituitary, target glandLabor contractions can be increased by the medical use of a synthetic drug that mimics the action of ________.oxytocinA human oocyte only completes meiosis II after a sperm penetrates it.TrueLutenizing hormone is at its peak during ovulation.TrueOn a submarine expedition to the ocean bottom, you discover a population of fish that are only female. What type of reproduction does this fish most likely use?ParthenogenesisFertilizationJoining of Sperm and eggCleavageDuplication of cells without growthGastrulationSeparation of cells into 3 distinct layersOrganogenesisDevelopment of specialized tissueDifferentiationForming of specialized cellsNeuralationForm of brain and spinal cordWhich of the following organs are derived from the mesoderm layer?kidney, heart, musclesWhat process of morphogenesis directly changes cells to have their specialized structure and function?differentiationIf multiple sperm enter an egg, polyspermy has occurred.TrueCells move to new positions as an embryo establishes its three germ tissue layers during ________.GastrulationWhich of the following changes occurs at synapses in the hippocampus following long term potentiation?increase in post-synaptic AMPA receptorsWhat portion of the human brain is more developed than most other species?forebrainWhich neurotransmitter(s) directly contribute to emotion?serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrineIn a normal neuron, which of the following ion(s) is present in higher concentration OUTSIDE the cell than inside the cell?both NA and CA2Which is NOT a function of glial cells?all of the above are functions of glial cellsIn a cell that generates action potentials, a stronger stimuli will produce a greater number of action potentials than a weaker stimuli.trueWhat forces are acting on ions to maintain the resting potential of a neuron?concentration gradient, active transport, and electrical forceWhich phase of the action potential is linked to opening of potassium channels (K+)falling phaseIn a myelinated axon where do you find the voltage-gated Na+ channels?clustered at the nodes of ranvierCell bodies are ingrey mattermylin is part of...white matterWhich neurotransmitter is altered by all drugs of abuse?dopamineMultiple synaptic inputs releasing glutamate onto another neuron simultaneously is an example of __________________.spatial summationhippocampusmemorynucleus accumbensrewardamygdalafearcerebellumbalancelymbic systememotioncorpus callosumcommunication between hemispheresSound energy is transferred from the tympanic membrane to the oval window by the ______________________.ossiclesIn olfactory transduction, the opening of calcium-activated chloride (Cl-) channels leads to depolarization and the generation of action potentials in the receptor cells. What is unusual about olfactory receptor neurons that accounts for this ability?they have unusually high concentrations of Cl- ions insideThe semicircular canals are directly involved in which of the special senses?equilibriumImmediately after putting on a shirt, your skin feels itchy. However, the itching stops after a few minutes and you are unaware that you are wearing a shirt. Why?Sensory adaptation has occuredAll visual information from your right visual field is processed in your left occipital lobe.trueWhich of the following is the best definition of transduction?the conversion of a stimulus into an electrical signal by a neuronPhotoreceptors respond to light by HYPERPOLARIZING and releasing LESS neurotransmitter.truerodmotionconecolor visionchemocreceptortastehair cellauditorynociceptorpainPacinian corpuscledeep touch and pressureA tonotopic map refers to how visual stimuli is organized on the retina.falsePleiotropy occurs when:one gene simultaneously affects multiple traitsIntrasexual selection in nature most commonly occurs as:male-male competitionWhich statement is false?mutations occur more often when they are advantageousIf there are only two alleles at a gene in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and the allele frequencies are p and q, then the expected frequency of the heterozygote genotype is 2pq.trueWhich of these is not a prezygotic isolating mechanism?they are allTwo individuals are homozygous for different alleles at three genes (AABBCC vs. aabbcc). How many different genotypes are possible among their F2 progeny? Recall how many genotypes are possible at each gene.27Which process causes different subpopulations to maintain similar allele frequencies despite local natural selection or genetic drift?gene flowFrogs are more closely related to fish than they are to humans.falsePopulation bottlenecks are especially likely to increase:genetic driftCharacters that are shared because of convergent evolution represent:homoplasyBecause crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other "reptiles", the birds (vertebrate class Aves) form a paraphyletic group.falseNon-random mating is one of the conditions necessary for maintaining allele frequencies in a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.falseThe Phanerozoic Eon began approximately 550 million years ago.true"Gee, expecting natural selection to produce something as complex as the vertebrate eye is like expecting a tornado to blow through a junkyard and just randomly assemble a Boeing 747!" This naïve statement is incorrect because:unlike the wind, natural selection causes phenotypic change in a NON-random directionDirectional selection on body size will occur when:smaller-than-average phenotypes have the highest fitnessArrange the following from most inclusive to least inclusive: 1. Natural selection 2. Microevolution 3. Intrasexual selection 4. Evolution 5. Sexual selection4,2,1,5,3The biological species concept places primary importance on:the degree of reproductive isolationThe production of different-sized gametes between the sexes is called:anisogamyWhich is a true statement concerning genetic variation?It must be present in a population in order for there to be evolution by natural selectionWhat is the name of the mating system in which both males and females have multiple mating partners during a breeding season?polygyandryIn seedcracker finches from Cameroon, small- and large-billed birds specialize in cracking soft and hard seeds, respectively. If long-term climatic change resulted in all seeds becoming hard, what type of selection would then operate on the finch population?directional selectionNatural selection is most nearly the same as:differential reproductive successWhich trait in humans provides an example of historical constraint?all of the aboveWhich phenomenon causes significant divergence between the genetic make-up of an individual's gametes and the genetic make-up of the gametes that produced that individual in the first place.recombinationYou bring a wild population of fruit flies into the lab and pick the slowest-developing flies as parents for each generation. After many generations, flies do indeed take longer to develop, but you notice that now they are also bigger. In this example, development time is ___________, and body size is ___________.the target of selection; a correlated response to selectionAn especially rapid mechanism of speciation that has been common in plants is:polyploidyWhich of the following is not one of the necessary conditions for evolution by natural selection?non-random matingHuman (and other mammalian) females produce milk because their pituitary glands secrete a hormone called prolactin. This statement is a good example of:proximate causationMammals evolved from a major lineage of amniotes called synapsids.trueMicrotektites and shocked quartz represent:part of the debris associated with an asteroid impactWhich of these examples is not an atavism?the high brain-to-body size ratio in modern humansThe external juvenile gills on the adult Mexican axolotl are an example of peramorphosis.falseThree of the major characteristics of modern placental mammals are hair or fur, mammary glands, and live births. Of these three, hair appears to have evolved last.falseBasilosaurus (also known as Zeuglodon) is a transitional fossil in the evolution of:whalein heterostylus plants, which of the following is true?stamens with the longest filaments have the largest pollen grainsThe net replacement rate, R0, is calculated as:the sum of age-specific survival times age-specific fecundity for each age classA factor that regulates a population is generally one that:acts in a positively density-dependent wayWhich of the following is not evidence of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous (the end of the Mesozoic)?a crater dated to be 550 million years oldIn tristylus plants, the genetic aspects that control development of flower morphology can be classified as what?epistasis and dihybrid crossHeterostyly has evolved in plants to keep plants from hybridizingfalseWhich term represents the gathering of vital statistics to determine population growth?demographyWhich of the following organisms is the closest living relative of the orangutan?humanThe logistic model of population growth predicts that, as N increases and gets closer to K:dn/dt approaches zeroA population is growing if its net replacement rate, R0, is greater than one.trueA cumulative survivorship curve that rises steeply at first and then drops at later ages is:not possibleThe sum total of an organism's interaction with the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment would represent its:nicheWhich transitional fossil helps to illustrate the gradual, early evolution of the tetrapod limb?tiktaalikGiven known mutation and nucleotide substitution rates, what are the typical coalescent times of total genetic diversity in the global human population, i.e. how far back to we have to go to account for the amount of genetic diversity we observe among all living peoples today?250,000 years agoThe realized niche must always be bigger than the fundamental niche.falseFeeding by one insect herbivore species induces elevated chemical defenses in its host plant. These plant defenses reduce the performance of another herbivore that attacks the plant later in the season. Because the later-arriving species does not affect the performance of the early-arriving species, this interaction is best described asamensalismAn age-structure pyramid that is wide at the bottom indicates that:the population is growing rapidlyThe biggest known mass extinction in the Phanerozoic occurred at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary.trueWhat are the periods of the Paleozoic Era from oldest to youngest?Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and PermianBatesian mimicry occurs when a palatable or harmless prey mimics a distasteful or dangerous one.trueanterior pituitary releasesFSH and LHLH surge causes...ovulationCNSbrain and spinePNSNerves