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Arts and Humanities
World War 2 and Cold War Review
Terms in this set (67)
Rise of dictators- Cause of ww2
Political unrest and poor economic conditions after World War I created an easy opening for dictators to seize power. Most dictatorships started in countries that did not have democracy such as Germany (Hitler), the Soviet Union (Stalin), Italy (Mussolini), and Japan (Shōwa/Hirohito).
Munich Agreement/Appeasement (1938)- Cause of ww2
Leaders of France and Britain made a deal to appease Hitler saying that Czechoslovakia would give up the Sudetenland in return for German pledges to seek no more territory in Europe. Hoped it would bring peace in our time. Hitler then took over the rest of Czechoslovakia
Versailles Treaty- reparations- Cause of ww2
Germany must pay $33 billion to the Allies over the course of 30 years to make up for the war. Led to economic downfall in Germany, which gave an opening for Hitler to seize power on the promise of revitalization.
Great Depression- Cause of ww2
A time of utter economic disaster; started in the United States in 1929. Worsened the economic situation in Europe, allowing Hitler to rise to power on the promise of revitalization.
Invasion of Poland (1939)- Cause of ww2
Germany invaded Poland, breaking their agreement of peace, so Britain and France declared war, starting World War II
Lend-Lease Act- pre US entering ww2
1941 law that authorized the president to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security. A way US could get involved in ww2 without actively in a world war
2 front war- pre US entering ww2
When opposing forces encounter on two geographically separate fronts. Used by Allied Powers in ww2 splitting their forces between the European theatre against Nazi Germany and the Pacific War against Japan.
Neutrality Acts- US pre entering ww2
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were originally designed to avoid American involvement in World War II by preventing loans to those countries taking part in the conflict; they were later modified in 1939 to allow aid to Great Britain and other Allied nations.
Blitzkrieg- pre US entering ww2
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939. Helped Germany successfully invade Poland and break it's agreement with the British, starting ww2
Battle of Britain- pre US entering ww2
A series of battles between German and British air forces, fought over Britain in 1940-1941. Won by Britain
Pearl Harbor- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Rationing- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
US citizens were encouraged to Restrict the amount of food and other goods they would buy during ww2 to assure adequate supplies for the military
Rosie the Riveter and role of women in ww2- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
A US propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
War Bonds/Liberty Bonds- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
Short-term loans that individual citizens made to the government that financed two-thirds of ww2's cost.
D-Day- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France from the Germans. The turning point of World War II.
Island Hopping- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
the American navy attacked islands held by the Japanese in the Pacific Ocean. A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others The capture of each successive island from the Japanese brought the American navy closer to an invasion of Japan.
dropping of the atomic bomb- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
During the final steps of World War II in 1945, the US under President Truman, .dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, one in Hiroshima, and the other was Nagasaki. Both devastated the cities, killing thousands and forcing Japanese surrender
Manhattan project- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Executive Order 9066- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
FDR's order to place all (112,000) Japanese Americans in Internment Camps due do discrimination from Pearl Harbor
Japanese relocation camps- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
Over 100,000 Japanese-born Americans on the West Coast were sent to interment camps after 1941 because of a fear that they would leak out information about the U.S. to Japan. The internment policy was due to hysteria and racism. The captured Japanese were released in 1942, and FDR apologized to them.
Korematsu v USA- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
was a landmark United States Supreme Court case concerning the constitutionality of Executive Order 9066. Ruled that Japanese Internment was constitutional because individual or group rights may be limited to protect national security
Tuskegee Airmen- US entry into ww2, war effort in US
famous segregated unit of African-American pilots
who shot down over 200 enemy planes. Trained at the Tuskegee flying school.
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Communism vs Capitalism- causes of cold war
Communist countries and Capitalist countries had high tensions due to strong disagreement on which ideology was better
Competition for allies- causes of cold war
The US and USSR were competing to establish countries friendly with them in various regions of the world
Post War World leader- causes of cold war
Idk what Mr. hohl is talking about, but I guess how dictators started taking over things and being like "hey, communism!"
Iron Curtain- causes of cold war
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated communist East and the U.S.-dominated capitalist West.
Truman Doctrine/Containment- Early "Battles" of cold war
To stop the spread of communism by giving financial aid, forming alliances, and supporting anti-communist governments whether they are democratic or not. Was done by the United States to prevent the Soviet Union from expanding its communist ideology. Started in Greece and Turkey
Marshall Plan- Early "Battles" of cold war
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and keep the appeal of communism down.
Berlin Airlift- Early "Battles" of cold war
US airlift (transport of goods using planes) in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact- Early "Battles" of cold war
In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955.
Eisenhower Doctrine- Early "Battles" of cold war
US would intervene in Middle East if any government threatened by a communist takeover asked for help
Space Race- Early "Battles" of cold war
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Arms Race- Early "Battles" of cold war
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their armed forces and weapons
Berlin Wall- Early "Battles" of cold war
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Korean War (causes and results)- Com vs Cap Battles
Causes: Korea is divided after WWII into north and south; communism implemented in the north by the USSR and democracy in the south by US; communist North Korea invades democratic south; South gets help from the UN. Proxy war.
Results: Korea remained divided at the 38th; North Korea still communist South Korea still democratic and capitalist; 33629 casualties; first successful battle for containment
Cuba War- Com vs Cap Battles
US support in overthrowing the communist Fidel Castro
Cuba- Bay of pigs- Com vs Cap Battles
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis- Com vs Cap Battles
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Cuba Embargo- Com vs Cap Battles
Commercial, economic and financial blockade currently imposed by the United States on Cuba. President John F. Kennedy signed the embargo on February 7, 1962.
Cuba- U-2 Crisis- Com vs Cap Battles
US spy plane shot down over the USSR, pilot arrested, went against the US's claims that they were not spying, Eisenhower admitted and said they'd keep spying for the safety of the US.
Greece and Turkey- Com vs Cap Battles
The locations where the US first tried to stop the spread of communism by giving $400 million in economic and military aid to stabilize the countries and keep the appeal of communism down.
Rosenberg trial- Cold War at Home
Husband and Wife accused of stealing and plotting to convey atomic secrets to soviet agents during WWII. They were innocents but found guilty
McCarthyism- Cold War at Home
The act of accusing people of disloyalty and communism.
Red Scare- Cold War at Home
fear that communists were working to destroy the American way of life
House Un-American Activities Committee- Cold War at Home
(HUAC) A congressional committee created to search out disloyal Americans & Communists.
Nuclear Scare- Cold War at Home
Americans were living in fear of nuclear war, sometimes living in bunkers, having nuclear drills in schools.
Baby Boom- 1950's at Home
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
Rise of the Middle Class- 1950s at Home
A post-war rise in unionism, the passage of the GI Bill, a housing program, and other progressive actions led to a doubling of the median family income in only 30 years, creating a middle class that included nearly 60 percent of Americans by the late 1970s.
Rise of the Suburbs- 1950s at Home
By 1960, more than 30% of Americans lived in suburbs. This implied the idea that America was becoming "homogenized." Examples included Levittown (an early "model" suburb), housewives, backyard barbecues. Symbolized the American dream
Interstate Highway System- 1950s at Home
A system of limited access roadways that connects all major cities in the US. The system was designed to give troops faster routes to get to destinations across the US in the event of an attack on the US. The system's main purpose now is travel by civilians.
American Dream- 1950s at Home
The widespread belief that the United States is a land of opportunity and that individual initiative and hard work can bring economic success.
GI Bill- 1950s at Home
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Domino Theory- Vietnam War
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- Vietnam War
1964 Congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam
Problems fighting Vietnam War
1. Difficult to identify enemy
2. US troops poorly prepared
3. Vietnamese fought unconventional war (guerrilla)
4. Poor fighting conditions
- jungle reduced visibility
- elephant grease, monsoons, mosquitos, etc
5. No clear objectives for soldiers to achieve (limited war)
6. US lost support at home; weakened moral of soldiers
War Powers Act- Vietnam War
1973. A resolution of Congress that stated the President can only send troops into action abroad by authorization of Congress or if America is already under attack or serious threat.
Student and civilian protests which included draft card burnings, flag burning, and marches against the war in Vietnam. Caused US to withdraw troops, showed power of public protests.
26th amendment- Vietnam War
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 because it was unfair that those eligible for draft were not eligible to vote
Most unpopular draft in the history of the U.S. People disagreed with us fighting in that war, because it "wasn't our war". Many people found ways to get out of the draft., Draft until 1973. Mostly working class - richer people had students deferments or created medical exemptions or appointments. People especially got angry when middle class white men had to go
Détente- Thawing of the Cold War
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
SALT I- Thawing of the Cold War
Treaty signed in 1972 between the U.S. and the USSR. This agreement limited the number of missiles in each nation and led to the SALT II discussions and a slowdown of the arms race between the two countries.
Nixon in China- Thawing of the Cold War
February 21, 1972 - Nixon visited for a week to meet with Chairman Mao Tse-Tung for improved relations with China, Called "ping-pong diplomacy" because Nixon played ping pong with Mao during his visit. Nixon agreed to support China's admission to the United Nations.
Perestroika (restructuring)- Collapse of Communism
A policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market based economy and society
Glasnost (openness)- Collapse of Communism
The dismantling of many of the repressive mechanisms that had been among the most conspicuous features of Soviet life for over half a century
Fall of Berlin Wall- Collapse of Communism
The removal of the wall that separated East and West Germany in 1989. Symbolized the end of the Cold War.
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