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Louisiana Purchase

Who: Jefferson Napoleon, committee to purchase
What: purchased french land west of M. R for 15million
When: 1803
Where: Land west of Mississippi
Why: jefferson's promise of land, removed foreign nations from borders, doubles size of U.S., switch to being a loose interpretation of constitution

Napoleon Bonaparte

Who: French military and political leader
What: french military and political leader who secretly forced Spain to give the Louisiana territory back to France; hoped to restore French empire in Americas
When: 1800s, 1803
Where: Americas; French
Why: Sold Louisiana Purchase to America

Toussaint l'Ouverture

Who: leader of Rebellion against France
What: leader of rebellion against French rule of Island of Santo Domingo
When: 1800s
Where: Santo Domingo
Why: rebellion resulted in heavy losses on French side

Strict interpretation, of Constitution

Who: Jefferson
What: Jefferson had a strict interpretation of the Constitution; rejected Hamilton's idea certain powers were implied
When: Early 1800s
Where: America
Why: Jefferson proposed adding land was application of president's power to make treaties

Lewis and Clark Expedition

Who: Jefferson; Meriwether Lewis; Lt. William Clark
What: expedition beginning in St. Louis, crossing the Rockies, reaching the Oregon coast on the Pacific Ocean and came back
When: 1803-1806
Where: strengthened U.S. claims to Oregon Territory, improved relations with Native American tribes, developed maps and land routes for fur trappers and future settlers

John Marshall, judicial review

Who: federalist judge, Jefferson's cousin from Virginia
What: Supreme Court Chief Justice who served for 34 years; ruled in Marbury v. Madison; claimed Judiciary ACt 1789 unconstitutional
When: 1800s
Where: America
Why: est. judicial review, said supreme court would exercise power to decide act of Congress or president unconsitutional

Marbury v. Madison

Who: John Marshall, William Marbury, Madison, Jefferson
What: midnight appointments led to Marbury/madison feud, federal case
When: 1803
Where: Supreme court
Why: blocks, bc appointment was unconstitutional, est. judicial review (guiding principle of courts)

Aaron Burr

Who: Jefferson's VP during his first term
What: Jefferson's former VP who threatened to break up the Union; challenged Federalist leader to a duel, Hamilton
When: 1800s
Where: America
Why: shot and killed Alexander Hamilton

Barbary Pirates

Who: Barbary States; Jefferson
What: pirates from Barbary States; first major challenge to Jefferson's foreign policy; Jefferson sent small fleet of U.S. naval vessels; fighting with Tripoli
When: Early 1800s
Where: America
Why: American navy gained respect and offered a measure of protection to U.S. vessels trading in Mediterranean waters


Who: Europe, France
What: regularly seized the ships of neutral nations
When: 1800s
Where: Everywhere



Chesapeake-Leopard affair

Who: British warship, U.S. Warship
What: British Leopard fired on U.S. Chesapeake Three Americans killed and four taken captive and forced into British navy
When: 1807
Where: a few miles off coast of Virginia
Why: anti-British feeling ran high, demand of war; Jefferson, diplomacy and economic pressure in response

Embargo Act (1807)

Who: Jefferson, Republicans in Congress, merchant ships, British
What: prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port
When: 1807
Where: America
Why: caused depression in NE, movement developed to secede from Union

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