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37 terms

APES Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
Culture
A society's knowledge and values
Worldview
One's perception of the world based on culture and personal experience
Ethics
Study of good and bad; right and wrong
Relativist
Person who believes ethics vary between society's and even individuals
Universalist
Person who believes ethics should be standard throughout the world
Ethical Standards
Details that draw the line betweeen right and wrong
Environmental Ethics
Application of ethics between human and the rest of the environment
Anthropocentrism
Human-centered view about the environment
Biocentrism
View based on the impact of all human and nonhuman things
Ecocentrism
View based on the impact of the whole ecosystem
Preservation Conservation
Preservation- We should protect the environment by not altering it
Conservation- Use of natural resources in combination of managing that use
Deep Ecology
Based on realiztion that we are part of nature
Ecofeminism
Argues that a male-dominated society has been the cause of social and environmental problems
Environmental Justice
Fair treatment of all people with respect to protecting the environment as well
Economics
The study of using scarce resources to provide goods and services in demand
Economy
Social system that converts resources into goods
Goods
Material commodities made from resources adn bought by individuals and corporations
Services
Work done for others in the form of business
Subsistence Economy
An economy where people meet all of or most of their needs directly through nature
Capitalist Economy
Goods and services are produced depending on demand
Centrally Planned Economy
Government determines in a top-down manner hot to allocate resources
Mixed Economics
Private markets where governments still intervene
Classical Economics
The society will benefit as a whole if people are free to pursue their own economic self-interest in a competetive marketplace
Neoclassical Economics
Examination of psychological factors underlying consumer choices
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Costs of an action are totalled up and compared to the benefits of the action
Externalities
Costs or benefits of the transaction that involve people other than the buyer or seller
External Cost
Negative externality
Affluenza
The way material goods frequently fail to bring satsifaction to the consumer
Ecological Economists
Believe that civilizations do not overcome their environmental limitations
Steady-State Economics
Economies that do not grow and do not shrink
Environmental Economists
Believe that we can overcome these changes and maintain sustainability within our current economic system
Gross Domestic Product
The total monetary value of final goods and services an economy produces each year
Genuine Progress Indicator
Calculation of positive contributions subtracted by negative impacts an economy puts out
Nonmarket Values
Values not included in the price of a good or service
Contingent Values
How much people are willing to pay to protect or restore resources
Market Failure
Markets fail when they do not take into account the positive benefits an environment can provide, and when they do not reflect on the negative effects the economic activity can have
Ecolabeling
To decipher which brands use environmentally benign processes