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37 terms

APES ch.2 key terms

STUDY
PLAY
Culture
the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education
Worldview
the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world
Ethics
a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality
Relativist
a person that believes ethics varies between societies and even individuals
Universalists
a person that believes ethics is standard throughout the world
Ethical Standards
principles that when followed, promote values such as trust, good behavior, fairness, and/or kindness
Environmental Ethics
the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to the environment and its nonhuman contents
Anthropocentrism
describes the tendency for human beings to see themselves as the central entities in the universe
Biocentrism
a belief that life creates the universe rather than the other way around
Ecocentrism
a term used in ecological political philosophy to denote a nature-centered system of values
Preservation Conservation
preservation:act of protecting the environment by not altering it; conservation:the act of using natural resources in while managing that use
Deep Ecology
a contemporary ecological philosophy that recognizes an inherent worth of other beings
Ecofeminism
a social and political movement which points to the existence of considerable common ground between environmentalism and feminism
Environmental Justice
the pursuit of equal justice and equal protection under the law for all environmental statutes and regulations without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, and /or socioeconomic status
Economics
the branch of knowledge dealing with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth
Economy
the wealth and resources of a country or region
Goods
a product that can be used to satisfy some desire or need
Services
the action of helping or doing work for someone
Subsistence Economy
an economy in which the people barely meet their everyday needs
Capitalist Market Economy
an economy with property rights and free choice
Centrally Planned Economy
economic decisions are made by the state or government rather than by the interaction between consumers and businesses
Mixed Economics
a combination of two or more of the types of economics
Classical Economies
the idea that free markets can regulate themselves
Neoclassical Economies
examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices
Cost-Benefit Analysis
a study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good
Externalities
costs that are not calculated into the price
External Cost
an uncompensated cost that an individual or firm imposes on others
Affluenza
a feeling of dissatisfaction or anxiety caused by the dogged and ongoing pursuit of more
Ecological Economists
believe that civilizations don't overcome their environmental limitations in the long run
Stead-State Economics
an economy of relatively stable size
Environmental Economists
people who believe that the world can't sustain more people
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the total value of all final goods and services produced in a particular economy
Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)
subtracts from the GDP costs that lead to a lower quality of life or deplete natural resources
Nonmarket Values
values not usually included in the price of a good or service.
Contingent Values
surveys people regarding their willingness to pay for a good or service
Market Failure
a situation in which the market does not distribute resources efficiently
Ecolabeling
serves to tell consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes