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the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education


the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world


a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality


a person that believes ethics varies between societies and even individuals


a person that believes ethics is standard throughout the world

Ethical Standards

principles that when followed, promote values such as trust, good behavior, fairness, and/or kindness

Environmental Ethics

the discipline in philosophy that studies the moral relationship of human beings to the environment and its nonhuman contents


describes the tendency for human beings to see themselves as the central entities in the universe


a belief that life creates the universe rather than the other way around


a term used in ecological political philosophy to denote a nature-centered system of values

Preservation Conservation

preservation:act of protecting the environment by not altering it; conservation:the act of using natural resources in while managing that use

Deep Ecology

a contemporary ecological philosophy that recognizes an inherent worth of other beings


a social and political movement which points to the existence of considerable common ground between environmentalism and feminism

Environmental Justice

the pursuit of equal justice and equal protection under the law for all environmental statutes and regulations without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, and /or socioeconomic status


the branch of knowledge dealing with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth


the wealth and resources of a country or region


a product that can be used to satisfy some desire or need


the action of helping or doing work for someone

Subsistence Economy

an economy in which the people barely meet their everyday needs

Capitalist Market Economy

an economy with property rights and free choice

Centrally Planned Economy

economic decisions are made by the state or government rather than by the interaction between consumers and businesses

Mixed Economics

a combination of two or more of the types of economics

Classical Economies

the idea that free markets can regulate themselves

Neoclassical Economies

examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices

Cost-Benefit Analysis

a study that compares the costs and benefits to society of providing a public good


costs that are not calculated into the price

External Cost

an uncompensated cost that an individual or firm imposes on others


a feeling of dissatisfaction or anxiety caused by the dogged and ongoing pursuit of more

Ecological Economists

believe that civilizations don't overcome their environmental limitations in the long run

Stead-State Economics

an economy of relatively stable size

Environmental Economists

people who believe that the world can't sustain more people

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

the total value of all final goods and services produced in a particular economy

Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI)

subtracts from the GDP costs that lead to a lower quality of life or deplete natural resources

Nonmarket Values

values not usually included in the price of a good or service.

Contingent Values

surveys people regarding their willingness to pay for a good or service

Market Failure

a situation in which the market does not distribute resources efficiently


serves to tell consumers which brands use environmentally benign processes

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