Exam 1 Review Questions

According to sociobiologists, what is the role of dancing?
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How would a social exchange theorist view a "friend with benefits" relationship in which a platonic friendship includes sexual activity?That is likely to remain while costs are low and rewards are high as long as there is equity. As soon as someone feels cheated (wants more) the relationship will lose its value and have to be altered accordingly.According to a cognitive psychologist, the impact of an event can change due to what? Give an example of a single event and how two different impacts might be produced by cognitive factors.Our perception, labeling and evaluating of events is crucial; a man who fails to achieve an erection may think it normal for his age (50) but the oral was good so all in all the sex was nice OR he may think himself to be abnormal and labeled himself impotent and the whole thing a disaster because he never had an erection so he didn't achieve orgasmA cognitive psychologist shows 100 students a picture of a boy playing with a baby doll and another picture of a boy swinging a baseball bat. A week later, the same students are asked about the pictures that they had seen. What mistake are they likely to make? What type of cognitive theory is this error consistent with? Describe how two social institutions have the variability in sexual behavior.They are likely to replace the image of the boy and the doll with that of a girl and a doll because it did not fit their gender schema which is consistent with Gender Schema Theory. Religion and medicine are two social institutions that vary in condoned sexual behavior.According to sociological theory, the importance of sexuality goes well beyond reproduction. What are two arguments for the universal importance of sexuality.1. Sexuality is associated with great physical pleasure 2. sexual interactions are associated with personal self-disclosure, not only of one's body but thoughts and feelings as wellWhat is volunteer bias? If a study suffers from volunteer bias how is the sample different from the population? Is this a serious problem for sex research?a bias in the results of sex surveys that arises when some people refuse to participate, so that those who are in the sample are volunteers who may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate. The sample is biased towards those who hold more permissive attitudes about sexuality and are more sexually experienced than those who don't participate. Volunteer bias is a serious problem when we try to reach conclusions based on sex research.Self-report is plagued by exaggerations and denials. These problems fall into what category of problem in sex research? What are the two jargon terms for exaggeration and denial within this context? Give an example of a question that could produce this type of problem and a sample response for an exaggeration and a denial.purposeful distortion; a tendency towards enlargement or concealment; "How long is your penis in inches?"If a questionnaire for a middle-aged person includes a question about how long he/she engaged in precoital foreplay when he/she first had sex, what are two problems the researchers are likely to encounter.1. Difficult to estimate time when engaged in sex 2. What is considered foreplay? 3. What if they can't accurately recall something that may have happened 20+ years ago?Interviews and questionnaires have been used in sex research. Each approach has strengths in different areas. Give two research focuses with one focus being better approached with an interview and the other being better approached with a questionnaire. Explain why you have matched the approach with the research focus.What are the three basic ethical principles used to govern research. Give an example of how each principle being violated.1. informed consent - coerced into participation in a study 2. protection from harm - shock participants during study then there needs to be valid reason 3. justice - testing medicine on the poor rather than the well-off individualsConsider the Kinsey Report. What was Kinsey's goal? What was a strength and a weakness of Kinsey's report? How are Kinsey's statistics viewed today? Why? 50-51His goal was simply to collect sex histories from as wide a variety of people as possible. Scientists generally regard Kinsey's sampling methods with dismay, but his face-to-face interviewing techniques are highly regarded (rapport, question phrasing, trained assistants). Interview techniques were excellent, Kinsey failed to use probability sampling with the most doubtful figure being the high incidence of homosexual behavior.What research technique was used in the NHSLS? What was unusual about the participation rate?probability sample of households in the U.S. (excluded people living in institutions and the homeless); obtained an impressive 79% response rate; data obtained in face-to-face interviews supplemented by questionnairesWhen conducting research with ethnic minorities, what are some important attributes of the person conducting the interview? If we generalize this idea to studies of homosexual men, what attributes should the interviewer have in this case? Do some cultures define sexual orientation differently from other cultures?same gender and ethnic background language (i.e. slang terms) cultural differences (i.e. definition of homosexual in Latino men)How did Coxon access men who have sex with men but are not openly gay? Discuss how this approach could be problematic in terms of acquiring a representative sample.He divided the population into two subgroups: those who were relatively more "out" and active and could be contacted through gay bars, activist organizations, and etc,; and those who were hidden, heterosexually married, and not readily accessible. He then used snow-balling technique from the first group to reach the second group.You have been asked to determine if Fox News is more homophobic than MSNBC news. Define a coding scheme that could be used. How would demonstrate that your measures are not biased just because you like one news program more than the other?Recording unit - "gay" Coding categories - "women sexually attracted to women", "men sexually attracted to men", "transsexual and transgender"A researcher observed homosexual activity in a public setting by acting as the look- out. He looked into the backgrounds of the people he observed and reported his findings without naming names. The book describes three basic ethical principles. Describe whether or not each of the principles was violated in this study. Make up your own scenario in which the violation(s) in this study cause harm to a participant.1. informed consent was definitely violated because none of the people were notified that they were being observed/that their actions would be recorded in a document 2. protection from harm was not violated because the identities of the individuals were kept anonymous and hidden 3. justice was violated because he picked a vulnerable, convenient population that was ripe for the pickingImagine a fictional study in which alcohol consumption and sexual activity was measured for all of the people that attended a party. The results of the study show that high levels of alcohol consumption were strongly associated with sexual activity and low levels of alcohol consumption were weakly associated with sexual activity. Is this a correlational study or an experimental study? Can a causal relationship be described in the results? If this study has an independent and dependent variable, then identify them. If this study does not have an independent and dependent variable, then describe the value of the correlation.Imagine a fictional study in which 50 people are given chocolate each morning for a month while 50 other people are not given chocolate. Sexual activity is also measured for all 100 people over the course of the month. The results of the study show that the group that ate chocolate each morning were sexually more active than the group who did not eat chocolate. Is this a correlational study or an experimental study? Can a causal relationship be described in the results? If this study has an independent and dependent variable, then identify them. If this study does not have an independent and dependent variable, then describe the value of the correlation.Are the average behavior and the normal behavior the same? Explain why or why not.No because the average woman has menstrual cycle that lasts 28 days but it's normal for that to vary widely depending on many other factors (age, weight, diet, genetics). "Average" shouldn't be confused with "normal" because it leads to unnecessary worry.Assume the following fictional data: 10 out of 100 17 year old males masturbated once a week and 20 out of 100 18 year old males masturbated once a week. What are the incidence, frequency and cumulative incidence of masturbation for 18 year old males? Be sure to include the units of measure for each value reported.cumulative incidence: 20/100 = .20 or 20% frequency = 1/5 incidence = 0Label the female anatomy in the picture provided.Label the internal female sexual and reproductive anatomy in the side-view picture provided.Label the internal female sexual and reproductive anatomy in the front-view picture provided.The clitoris is homologous to a part of the male anatomy. What is the clitoris homologous to and what does homologous mean in this context?The glans in the male penisFor females, urine comes out of what? Is this consistent or inconsistent with the homologous part of the male anatomy?UrethraTypically, what external female reproductive anatomy is easily visible to the woman herself?clitoris, two sets of labiaWhat is the proper name for the tissue that may partially cover the vaginal opening? Does urination affect the presence of this tissue? In traditional cultures, what does the presence of this tissue mean? Is this consistent or not with modern medical knowledge? Why or why not? How might this tissue be ruptured?- Hymen - Virginity - Not consistent with medical knowledge; other ways a hymen can break or be abnormally formed - Riding a horseWhat is the entrance of the vagina called? What is the part of the uterus called that is connected to the vagina? The majority of nerves in the vagina are located where? What is the G-spot and where is it? Do all women have a G-spot?- Introitus - Cervix - Clitoris (above the vagina) - G-spot found between introitus and urethra - Existence of G-spot has not been provenVaginal fluid is produced during intercourse as lubrication and, for some women, as an ejaculation during orgasm. One fluid comes through the vaginal wall. What is the source of the other fluid? In your answer be sure to name which fluid comes from which source.The other fluid is from the Skene's Gland or female prostate which secretes a fluid similar to male prostate fluid or ejaculationWhat are the three layers of the uterus and what is the primary function of each?1. endometrium (inner layer) - sloughed off at menstration and creates menstrual discharge 2. myometrium (middle layer) - strong muscles creating labor contractions and orgasm 3. perimetrium (outer later) - forms the external coverWhat are the two major functions of the ovaries? What are the three things that are produced by these two functions?They produce mature eggs and the manufacture sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.How many mammary glands does a woman typically have?15-20 clusters; 30 totalLabel the parts of the breast anatomy in the picture.1. mammary gland 2. lactiferous duct 3. lactiferous sinus 4. nipple 5. areola 6. fat 7. cooper's ligamentsLabel the male anatomy in the picture provided.What are the three cylinders that form the shaft of the penis? Specify which cylinder has urine path through it and which cylinder has semen pass through it. Is there a bone or muscle in the penis shaft? How do these cylinders change to produce an erection?1. corpus cavernosa (2) 2. corpus spongiosum (1) - urethra carries urine and semen No the spaces in the spongey tissue of the 3 cylinders fills with blood during arousalWhat does the prepuce cover for female and for male anatomy? The prepuce has a second more common name for the male anatomy. What is the second name?In males it covers the glans or head of the penis and in women it covers the clitoris. It is more commonly known as the foreskin.Consider male circumcision. What is the most common reason for a boy to be circumcised? Have there been changes in the number of circumcisions over the past 50 years? What is a medical reason for a boy to be circumcised?It has been part of religious practices for many years. In 1986 only 59% of boys were circumcised down from 90% in 1970. Medical evidence shows that circumcision can reduce risk of infection (urinary tract, STD, etc).Is circumcision more likely to be studied using a correlation study or an experimental study? Why?Correlational because it's not ethical to have parents circumcise and have an uncircumcised control groupThe average flaccid penis is 2.5 to 4 inches long. How long is the average erect penis? Does size change occur equally for penises of different lengths? What did Masters and Johnson find about penis size and the "ability to satisfy a woman"?The average erect penis is about 6 inches (15 cm) long. There is a tendency for the small penis to grow more in erection than one that starts out large. The vagina is relatives insensitive so a very long penis may not even be noticeable.What is the proper term for the male and female gonads? What are the two functions of the gonads for both males and females? For the male gonads, what structures or cells carry out these two functions?The testes are the gonads of the males, which are analogous to the female's ovaries. They serve two major functions: the seminiferous tubules manufacture germ cells (sperm) and the interstitial cells manufacture sex hormones (testosterone).What "clever trick" does the scrotum do in response to temperature changes and why? Can this "clever trick" be used as an effective contraceptive method?Move up and close to the body in cold temperatures or down and away in hot temperatures in order to protect the sperm. This is known as the cremasteric reflex. Taking long hot baths has not been an effective method of contraceptionHow many chromosomes are in the sperm, egg and the fertilized egg? How many sperm are typically in an average ejaculate?A normal sperm carries 23 chromosomes. When the sperm unites with the egg, which also carries 23 chromosomes, the full complement of 46 for the offspring is produced. An average ejaculate in adult men contains 200 million sperm.During sexual arousal and ejaculation, the fluid coming from the penis is not just sperm. What are three sources for the fluids? What are at least two functions of the fluids?The seminal vesicles produce 60% of seminal fluid. The remaining 40% is produced by the prostate. Sperm is produced by the seminiferous tubules. All empty into the ejaculatory duct to combine.What are the two times at which most sexual differentiation occurs? Give an example of differentiation at each of the two different times.1. prenatal - structural differences 2. pubertyHow does a hormone get from the generating gland to the target area? Give an example gland and associated target area.manufactured by endocrine glands and secreted directly into the bloodstream making their effects felt rapidly and at places in the body quite distant from the origin.What are the three parts that form the HPG axis? Name a hormone that is secreted within this axis and the function of the hormone.1. Hypothalamus 2. Pituitary 3. Gonads TestosteroneWhat happens when testosterone levels get too high? What sequence of events occurs in order to reduce the level of testosterone? Be sure to spell out the different structures and hormones involved.Negative feeback loop because increases in hormones turn off the axis and decreases turn it on. The pituitary's production of LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. When testosterone levels get high, the hypothalamus reduces its production of GnRH in turn causing reduction in production of LH and consequently reduces production of testosterone. When levels fall, the hypothalamus again increases production of GnRH and process starts againWhat produces inhibin and what hormone does inhibin inhibit? What function is reduces as a result of the inhibited hormone?Produced by Sertoli cells in the testes; acts to regulate FSH levels in a negative feedback loop,just as testosterone with LHWhat is the sex of someone with XX? XY? XXY?XX - female XY - male XXY - male with Kline-felter's syndromeAt 4 weeks post-conception, has the embryo become sexually differentiated? At what week do the undifferentiated gonads become testes? At what week do the undifferentiated gonads become ovaries? At how many weeks are the external genitals visibly different?No by the 7th week some basic structures have been formed (gonads, Mullerian and Wolffian ducts, external genitals). After the 7th week in the male, the undifferentiated gonad develops into a testes; in female, the process occurs around 13-14 weeks with development of the ovaries.At least two brain structures appear to be sexually dimorphic. Name two brain regions and indicate how each region influences behavior.The primary differentiated structure is the hypothalamus, in particular a region called the preoptic area. Larger volume of the hypothalamus and amygdala (high densities in androgen and estrogen receptors) in men than in women. The amygdala which is important in emotion is also differentiated.Define, contrast and give examples of homologous and analogous organs.When an organ in the male and and organ in the female both develop from the same embryonic tissue, the organs are homologous. When the two organs have similar functions, they are said to be analogous. Ovaries and testes are homologous (because they both develop from an undifferentiated gonad) and analogous (because they produce gametes and sex hormones)Name and describe one biological variable and one psychological variable on which gender can be based. Be sure to make it clear how an individual falls into one class or the other based on each of the two variables. Under what conditions is a person considered to have an intersex condition?Biological: prenatal hormonal gender, chromosomal gender, prenatal and neonatal brain differentiation, internal organs, external genital appearance, pubertal hormonal gender. Psychological: assigned gender, gender identity. When the contradictions occur among several of the biological variables the person is said to have an intersex condition or DSD.Name and describe a syndrome that usually results in an intersex condition.Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - a genetic female develops ovaries normally as a fetus, but later in the course of prenatal development, the adrenal gland begins to function abnormally and produces an excess amount of androgens resulting in the external genitalia to be partly/completely maleWhat is the gender identity of a Guevodoces at birth and as a teenager? As an adult, what is the typical sexual orientation of a Guevodoces?Genetic males appear to be females at birth (5-alpha reductase deficiency syndrome) and are reared as females. But their gender identity switched to male and they developed heterosexual interests.What is the difference between puberty and adolescence?Puberty is not a point in time but rather a process during which there is further sexual differentiation. There is sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, or other genitals, and secondary characteristics leading to reproductive capacity. Adolescence is a socially defined period of development that bears some relationship to puberty but instead represents a psychological transition from behavior and attitudes of a child to those of an adult.Many changes occur during puberty. Within the context of sexuality, what is probably the most important thing that happens for boys and girls? When does puberty occur for girls and boys? Why is the "when" question difficult to answer?Most memorable is the first ejaculation for males and the first menstruation for females. Girls begin the change around 8-12 while boys do so about 2 years later. Girls reach full height by age 16, while boys continue to grow until about 18. Large differences in the age at which this begins meaning there is no one "normal" time to begin or end the process.At what age does menarche occur? What is menarche and how can the child most likely avoid a negative reaction to it? Can reproduction typically occur as soon as menarche occurs?At about 12 years of age, the first menstruation occurs. Some of the most negative reactions occur when the girl has not been prepared for it. A girl cannot become pregnant until ovulation begins, typically about 2 years after menarche.What are the three glands most responsible for the changes during puberty for a girl?Hypothalamus releases pulses of GnRH which triggers an increase in secretion of FSH by the pituitary which in turn stimulates the ovaries to produce estrogen. The adrenal glands produce androgens and stimulate growth of pubic and auxiliary hair.At what age is a boy able to ejaculate? At approximately what age is a boy fertile?By age 13 or 14 the boy is capable of ejaculation and by about 15 the ejaculate includes mature sperm and the male is now fertileStructurally, what type of tissue volume increases in girls during puberty and what tissue volume increases in boys during puberty?fatty tissueWith menarche, girls have a clear indicator that puberty is taking place. Boys may not have a clear indicator that puberty is taking place. How do some cultures recognize puberty in boys? For boys, what is a close analog to menarche?What are three differences between animals that have menstrual cycles and animals that have estrous cycles?1. In animals that have estrous cycles there is no menstruation 2. the timing of ovulation in relation to bleeding is different 3. female animals with estrous cycles engage in sexual behavior only when they are in heat (the estrus phase)Why is menstruation a logical first stage of the menstrual cycle? Why is menstruation a logical last stage of the menstrual cycle?Because menstruation is it easiest phase to identify it is tempting to call it the first phase the biologically it is actually the last phase.What are the four stages of the menstrual cycle and describe the state of the egg in each stage.1. Follicular stage - signals a follicle to begin to bring an egg to the final stage of maturity 2. ovulation - follicle rupture open releasing the egg 3. luteal phase/secretory phase - after releasing the egg, the follicle turns into a glandular mass of cells called the corpus luteum 4. menstruation - egg is shed along with uterine liningWhat are the two pituitary hormones that impact the menstrual cycle? What are the two ovarian hormones that impact the menstrual cycle?Pituitary - FSH and LH Ovarian - estrogen and progesteroneWhat is the normal range of lengths for a menstrual cycle? Which phase is thought to be the most variable?Generally anywhere from 20 to 36 days is considered with in the normal range the average is about 28 days. The luteal phase is relatively constant it is the follicular phase that varies in length.Describe one measurable change that occurs at around the time of ovulation that can be used to determine when ovulation has occurred. Describe two different measurements and what they mean about the cycle.Changing of the cervical mucus from thick, alkaline to thin and water starts just before ovulation begins. A dried sample of mucus before ovulation will make a fern pattern. Basal body temperature rises the day after ovulation because progesterone raises the body temperatureProvide two pieces of evidence that sexual desire in women peaks at ovulation.1. A study assessing sexual activity with a partner and self-rated sexual desire indicated that sexual activity initiated by the woman peaked during the three days before in three days after ovulation 2. A study in which women kept electronic diaries indicated that maximum sexual arousability does occur at the time of peak fertility1. Describe the path taken by the ovum during the 48 hours that begins at the ovary.When an ovum is released from an ovary, it travels through the Fallopian tube to the uterus. Conception occurs if sperm reach the Fallopian tube and one penetrates and fertilizes the ovum. Ovum lives 12-24 hours sperm can fertilize for about 48-72 hours.2. Describe the path taken by the sperm from testicle to ejaculate in anatomical terms.Sperm is produced in testes. Matured sperm is stored in the epididymis. Sexually aroused, sperm moves form epididymis to vas deference. Seminal vesicles add a nourishing liquid (semen).Semen passes through the prostate gland. Prostate gland adds neutral fluid to semen which protects sperm from acidic environment of vagina. Semen travels past cowpers gland, which adds a fluid that lubricates the urethra and neutralizes urine in urethra. Prostate gland begins strong contractions that release the semen during ejaculationWhy do roughly half of the sperm that reach a fallopian tube have no chance of fertilizing an egg? What keeps roughly half of the sperm in the total amount of ejaculate from getting into the uterus?Roughly half will flow out of the vagina due to gravity. acidity from the vagina kills most of the sperm, of those that make it to the uterus go to the wrong fallopian tube which contains no eggs.How does the egg change locations from the ovary to the uterus?The fimbriae moves the egg into the fallopian tube, where it is fertilized. It becomes a zygote and divides and becomes a mass of cells. It continues down the fallopian tubes until it attaches to the uterus.What guides the sperm to the egg when they are getting close?chemical receptors on the surface of the sperm respond to the attractant and the sperm swims toward the egg. The sperm recreates an enzyme called Zona Pellucida.The fertilized egg is called a zygote from conception until 2 weeks post-conception. What is it called at the end of the zygote stage? How long is this second stage?Embryo ; 8 weeksDescribe two important roles of the placenta.serves as a site for the exchange of substances between the women blood and the fetus blood.What are two important roles for the amniotic fluid?The amniotic fluid maintains the fetus at a constant temperature and cushions the fetus against possible injury.At approximately what week are movements detected?Week 18Does missing a period mean a woman is pregnant?No, there are many other reasons besides pregnancy, illness or emotional destress, and women sometimes skips a period for no appropriate reason.In terms of pregnancy tests, what is a false negative? Are home pregnancy tests very good?False negative means tells the women she's not pregnant when she really is. False positive means when it says a women is pregnant when she's really not. Home pregnancy tests are good to use just depends on the quality test you get.What proportion of pregnant women experience morning sickness? Describe one theory for why morning sickness occurs.Nausea and vomiting causes pregnant women to expel and subsequently avoid food containing toxic chemicals. 33% of women dont have these symptoms.Describe the association of testosterone and prolactin with paternal behavior.Men with more pregnancy symptoms has higher levels of prolactin prenatally.Is it OK for a pregnant woman to have sex? Given what we learned about female orgasm and the uterus why might it be good for a woman to have regular orgasms prior to giving birth?Yes, intercourse does not give preterm labor.Describe three problems associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.small brain, small eye openings, and joint, limb, and heart malformationDescribe the three stages of birth.Stages of Labor 1. Early First Stage Labor: regular contractions(15-20 min) 2. Late- First stage: Dilation of the cervix, contractions stronger 3. Second Stage: cervix is fully dilated, baby head begins to move into the vagina 4. Third Stage labor: placenta detaches from wall of uterus, afterbirth is expelled.Give three reasons for having a cesarean section1. if the baby is to large or the mothers pelvis is to small 2. labor has been long and and the cervix is not dilated 3. if the umbilical cord prolapseHow does the rate of C-sections in the US compare with other western European countries? If a woman has a C-section for one birth do subsequent births have to be C-sections?32%; if they dont want to they can try.Describe two specific benefits of Lamaze and one misunderstanding associated with idealistic prepared childbirth?Benefits Conservation of energy in an event that requires endurance, avoidance of the tension that increases perception of pain, learn a series of controlled breathing exercises to help in contractions Misunderstanding may create unrealistic expectations for deliveryWhy should anesthesia be used during birth? Why shouldn't it be used? Who should decide whether it should be used?if delivery becomes intense, this can take away the pain. However, they can be passed on to the infant through the placenta. Mother's discretionThree forms of depression with varying degree of severity can occur in a woman following birth. What are they? What symptoms differentiate the forms of depression and how common are they?post partum blues mildest form, mood swings, periods of depression, irritable, crying. Begins a few days after birth, lessens by two weeks (50-80%) post partum depression more severe, depression, insomnia, fatigue. 2-3 weeks, 8-15% post partum psychosis most severe, restlessness, irritability, sleep disturbance, disorganized behavior, mood swings, delusions, hallucinations (1-2 out of 1000)How do prolactin and oxytocin influence lactation? What secretes these hormones for lactation?Prolactin stimulates breast to reduce milk, produced fairly consistently for whatever length of time the woman breastfeeds (pituitary gland) Oxytocin Stimulates the breasts to eject milk, produced by pituitary gland in response to infant sucking on breastsWhat is the effect of breast-feeding on ovulation and the likelihood of becoming pregnant?Can breastfeeding cause sexual arousal in the woman? Is this wrong?Yes and noWhat are amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling? Specify what is sampled and when the procedure can take place.Amniocentesis involves inserting a fine tube through the pregnant women abdomen and removing some amniotic fluid for analysis. CVS is an alternative to amniocentesis for prenatal diagnosis of genetic defects. Can be done in the first trimester 9 to11 weeks post conceptionWhat are two possible negative effects of infertility on sexual relationship of the couple?lack of marital satisfaction, impairment of relationships, especially between couples, lack of sexual satisfaction, loss of confidence in relation to sex and sexual intercourse, decreased libidoThe combination birth control pills raise some hormone levels that inhibit other hormones. What hormones levels are high and what hormone levels are inhibited?Raise- estrogen and progestin; Inhibit- FSH and LHWhat is combined in the "combination pill"?estrogen and progestinContrast and define the two kinds of failure rate for birth control.The failure rate for perfect users and the failure rate for typical users. The perfect user refers to the studies of the best possible use of the method. Failure for typical users are imperfectly, when they forget to take the pill or do not use a condom every time.Although side effects are fairly uncommon with birth control pills, what are some side effects mentioned in the textbook?blood clotting, high blood pressure, women who take the pill for more than 5 years are at risk of benign liver tumors increasesWhich is someone more likely to die from: being on the birth control pill or giving birth?The pill is more dangerous than giving birthWhat is the impact of the pill on contracting sexually transmitted diseases?The pill cannot protect you from STDsWhy might taking the pill be "contraceptive overkill" and what might be a reasonable alternative?because you take it everyday/there is a production and inhibition of your hormones even if you are not having sex everydayHigh- estrogen pills are associated with what side effect while high-progestin pills are associated with what side effect?blood clotting; irregular menstruationHow is the progestin-only pills different from the combination pill?Progestin-only pills have also been developed they have a typical-user failure rate that is higher than the combination pill.Describe "The Patch" and "The Vaginal Ring" contraception. Be sure to include how it is used, how the substance effects the body.The vaginal ring is a flexible, transparent ring made of plastic and filled with the same hormones as those in the combination pills, The ring is placed high up in the vagina and remains in place for 21 days. The patch contains the same hormones as combination pills but is administrated through the skin.How is "Emergency Contraception" different from "the pill" contraception? Be sure to clearly describe the difference in how the egg-to-birth process is interrupted.Emergency contraception is used for situations like rape or a condom breaking. The treatment is effective when used 12 to 24 hours. It contains the same hormone as a birth control pill but in higher dosesDescribe the forms of birth control that do not introduce synthetic hormones but do require a medical professional to apply or fit the birth control.Implants which are thin rods inserted under the skin, Depo-Provera Injection, the IUD,How can the male condom be become nearly 100 percent effective?If it is put on properly while the penis is erected. Not before ejaculation because the penis could still have sperm in the urethra.What birth control is available for a man?Vasectomy and male condom.What are some of the benefits of using a male condom?protects from STIs and pregnancyWhich forms of birth control can interfere with spontaneity? Describe one way to avoid interfering with spontaneity with a form of birth control that can interfere with spontaneity.spermicides: substances that kill sperm-barrier methods: preventing sperm from meeting egg-male & female condoms-the diaphragm-the cervical cap and femcap the contraceptive spongeHow long can sperm survive in the female reproductive tract?up to 5 days.What range of days in the cycle are eligible for penis-vagina sex when using the basal body temperature method?three days after ovulationWith male and female surgical birth control are hormone levels affected?YesDescribe a form of birth control that is easily reversed and another that is notSterilization and VasectomyWhat forms of birth control reduce the likelihood of becoming infected with an STI?CondomsAccording to Masters and Johnson, what are the three stages of sexual response?Three stages of sexual response: excitement, orgasm, and resolutionDescribe the beginning and ending of an erection in terms of blood flow and neurotransmitters.1. stimulation takes place in penis 2. this creates neural signal that is transmitted to erection center 3. this center sends out message via parasympethic division of ANS and to muscles around penis 4. muscles relax, arteries expand which allow large amount of blood to get to themWhere does vaginal lubrication come from?the vaginal wall; fluids that seep through the semipermeable membranes of vagina: vasocongestion (making things swell)In the excited phase of sexual arousal what parts of the female swell or get larger?the clitoris glans began to swell and the capillaries in the walls of the vagina when blood flow throughDescribe the erectile response in females that is analogous to the erectile response in males.During excitement what do the labia and vagina do that allow it to accommodate the insertion of a penis?expands which they call"ballooning" helps accommodate the penisWhat are vasocongestion, vasoconstriction and myotonia? Give an example of each.Vasocongestion occurs when a great deal of blood flows into the blood vessels in a region. Vasoconstriction is the narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels by small muscles in their walls. Myotonia occurs when muscles contract, not only through the genitals but through the body as well.Male orgasm can be divided into two stages. What are they? Describe the location of semen for each stage.Male orgasm occurs in 2 stages: Preliminary stage, the vas, seminal vesicle, and prostate contract, forcing the ejacualte into a bulb at the base of the urethra. In the second stage, urethral bulb and the penis itself contracts rhythmically, forcing the semen through the urethra and out the opening at the tip of the penis.Orgasm includes rhythmic contractions for both sexes. How many occur and at what interval?0.8 second intervals, there may be 3 or 4 in a mild orgasm or as many as a dozenWhat are two reasons that a woman should not fake an orgasm and one reason why a woman might fake an orgasm? How can a partner tell whether a woman has faked an orgasm?prevents the partner from having valid feedback. theres no way to know unless you hook a women to a machine that takes her heart rate.Describe what the refractory period is and how it differs between the sexes.Refractory period is during which they are refractory to further arousal. They are incapable of being aroused again by erection or orgasm. Women do not have refractory periodsWhat are the two findings from Masters and Johnson's research that suggests Freud's view of the female orgasm was wrong?all female orgasm are physiologically the same. second, clitoral stimulation is almost always involved in producing orgasm, even during vaginal intercourse.Are women likely to experience multiple orgasms with penile-vaginal intercourse? Why or why not?Multiple orgasm is more likely to result from hand-genital to mouth-genital than from intercourse.What are two criticisms of Masters and Johnson's model of sexual response?It ignores the cognitive and subjective aspect of sexual response, and concerns how research participants were selected and how this process may have created a self-fulfilling prophecy for the outcome.Describe three reasons Kaplan's separation of vasocongestion and muscular contractions makes sense.Sexual desire, vasocongestion of the genitals, and the reflex muscular contractions of the orgasm phase.If a view of a female doctor's hand examining a man's testicle is not arousing to a woman it may be because of what aspect of the cognitive model for sexual response?What are the two major components of the Dual Control Model? Which of these two components has been largely ignored by other models?Excitation (responding with arousal to sexual stimuli) and inhibition (inhibiting sexual arousal). Excitation is commonly ignored.A man with a severed spinal cord can have an erection. A man with an intact spinal cord can have an erection without any physical stimulation of the genitals. Describe what we can conclude about the communication that occurs between thepenis and the brain in regard to acquiring an erection.The erection reflex center is lower on the spinal cord (the sacral) than the conscious perception of sexual response which is lower that the conscious control of sexual response. So a man with a severed spinal cord can achieve an erection from physical stimulation because the neurotransmitters don't have to travel as far up the spine.Where are the ejaculation and erection centers?The erection center is in the sacral, or lowest part of the spinal cord. The ejaculation center is located in the lumbar portion of the spinal cord it triggers muscle contractions in the internal organs that are involved with orgasmName two of the three components of the "sexual interest network".nucleus accumbent, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, and hypothalamusWhat are organizing and activating effects of hormones? Be sure to include examples of each.Organizing effects are hormones early in development resulting in a permanent change in the brain or reproductive system. Activating effects are in adulthood, resulting in the activation of behaviors, especially sexual behaviors and aggressive behaviors.How are lower species and humans different in terms of hormonal influences on sexual behavior?Generally, the trend is for the behavior of lower species to be more under hormonal control and for the behavior of higher species to be more under brain control.Give two pieces of evidence that suggest that testosterone has an impact on a person's desire to engage in sexual activity.1. levels of testosterone are correlated with sexual behavior in boys around the time of puberty 2. androgens are used successfully in the treatment of women who have low sexual desireWhat are two locations where humans secrete chemicals that have been demonstrated to be pheromones in other species?recreated through the bloodstream outside the body like sense of smell (dogs urine) 1. underarm sweat of humans (pigs) 2. human vaginal secretions (male rhesus monkeys)Describe a study in which pheromones are used to synchronize menstrual cycles.Women who spend lots of time together tend to get the same cycle due to pheromones (209)Describe a study that supports the idea that sexual orientation may impact our perceptions of odors.armpit secretions collected from heterosexual men, heterosexual women, gay men, and lesbians. Odor pleasantness was then rated. Hetero men gave the lowest pleasantness ratings to gay male pheromones. Gay men gave low ratings to those of heterosexual men.Describe the impact of women's armpit secretions on LH and the resulting impact on the menstrual cycle.Underarm secretions from the same donors collected later in the menstrual cycle: delayed the LH surge in other women and lengthened the time to menstruation.What is an example of an erogenous zone? What is an erogenous zone? Do all people of the same sex have the same erogenous zones?Refers to the part of the body that are sexually sensitive and produce sexual arousal when stimulated. Lips, neck, thighs, genitals, and breasts. They differ from person to person.Describe the role of the clitoral glans and penis glans in masturbation for the majority of individuals. Describe the role of vaginal penetration for the majority of women during masturbation.Most commonly women masturbate by manipulating the clitoral glans just as men masturbate by manipulating the penis glans. The majority of women do not use penetration to masturbate"Fantasy" section.men fantasies focus on sexual activity andwomen focus more on the role and men more likely to report fantasies involving multiple partnersHow do researchers get information about child sexuality?An alternative to surveying adults would be to interview children about their sexual behavior though few researchers have done either. In a few studies children have been questioned directly about their sexual behavior. Virtually no researcher has made systematic, direct observations of children's sexual behavior.What is a fundamental ethical challenge with asking a child to participate in a research study?informed consentAt what age is the earliest documented male erection? Vaginal lubrication?Ultrasounds studies indicate that reflect erections occur in the male fetus for several months before birth and vaginal lubrication has been found in baby girls in the 24 hours after birth.What appears to be the natural progression of self-stimulation from infant to puberty?Generally the progression is that, between 6 and 12 months, infants discover their genitals unintentionally touching them. By 15 to 19 months, both genders increase genital touching.What is adrenarche? When does it usually occur? What behavior changes are associated with it?In childhood, the maturation of the adrenal glands, resulting in increased secretion of androgens at around 8-10 years of age. As a result some sex hormone action occurs well before adolescence.How do girls and boys generally find out about masturbation?boys - told by male peers, see peers, or read about it girls - accidental self-discoveryGive three possible negative repercussions of sexualization on young women1. self-esteem and body dissatisfaction 2. cognitive performance 3. engaging in unwanted sexual activity due to objectificationGive three possible factors that might lead to the heightened sexuality during adolescence1. bodily changes and awareness of them 2. rises in levels of sex hormones 3. increased cultural emphasis on sexWhat hormone impacts adolescent sexuality? What social variables impact adolescent sexuality? Describe the gender differences.For boys, testosterone had a strong relationship to sexual activity. For girls there was some relationship between testosterone and sexual activity but sexual activity was mostly linked to pubertal development. Sexually permissive attitudes and church attendance play a role on sexuality as well.What can society do to counteract sexualization? Give three suggestions1. Provide media literacy programs, broader range of athletic opportunities, and comprehensive sexuality education within schools 2. Parents can watch TV and movies and navigate the Internet with their children sharing values about appropriate and inappropriate behavior 3. Youth can create alternative media (i.e. "zines")Describe the difference in the proportion of males and proportion of females who masturbate for by the age of 14.Most boys begin masturbating between 13 and 15. Many girls also begin in adolescence, but many do not begin until later with a much more gradual increase over time.Give one reason adolescents choose not to have intercourse and one reason why adolescents choose to have intercourse.Choose Not against religion/morals, don't want to get pregnant, and haven't found the right person Choose To relationship goals (increased intimacy), sexual pleasure, and increased social statusIf a 17-year old uses his phone to send a nude photo of himself to another 17-year old who keeps it on his phone, who has violated federal law?Both have violated, one for sending it and the other for possessing itSexually active 20 to 21-year-olds cluster into different groups based on their patterns of sexual activity. Describe two attributes for Active Unprotected and Satisfied groups.1. Active unprotected - they had a relatively high frequency of sex and were moderately satisfied with their sex lives but they did not practice safe sex 2. Satisfied group - very satisfied with their sex life, while placing low importance on having regular sexWhat is the "orgasm gap" for hookups?In heterosexual encounters, men are more likely to orgasm than women.What is the difference between hookups and friends with benefits?hook ups refers to a sexual encounter that involves people who are strangers or acquaintances, without an expectation of forming a committed relationship. Friends with benefits are where two people who're friends occasionally have sex with each other.What proportion of 20 to 24-year-old males and females engage in same-gender sexual behavior?16% of women and 6% of menIn Erikson's adolescence stage of psychosocial development, what is the role of sexualitySexuality can function in an important way as people develop their capacity for intimacy.Within the context of Erikson's stages, if a child is severely punished for masturbating, how might one of Erikson's crisis be resolved in the child? Be sure to specify the age of the child that you are describing.The child who masturbates at age 5 is showing autonomy and initiative. But if the parents react to this activity by severely punishing the child, their actions may produce shame and guilt. Thus they may be encouraging the child to feel ashamed and consequently to suffer a loss of self-esteem.